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  • An extended phase II trial of iodine-125 methylene blue for sentinel lymph node identification in women with breast cancer.

An extended phase II trial of iodine-125 methylene blue for sentinel lymph node identification in women with breast cancer.

Journal of the American College of Surgeons (2013-03-26)
William W Harkrider, Anne E Diebold, Thomas Maloney, Gregory Espenan, Yi-Zarn Wang, Shawn J Stafford, Arthur Camp, Daniel Frey, Charles Chappuis, Eugene A Woltering
ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to determine if an intraoperative injection of iodine-125-labeled methylene blue ((125)I-MB) is a sensitive and effective method for detecting SLNs in women with breast cancer. Sixty-two women were enrolled in an extended phase II trial using (125)I-MB to guide SLNB. All patients were anesthetized and then injected subcutaneously with 1 mCi (125)I-MB in the outer quadrant of the areola. Radioactivity was detected in the axilla within 3 to 5 minutes. Fifty-eight of 62 (94%) patients had SLNs detected during their procedure. Mean (±SD) number of SLNs per patient was 1.8 ± 1.3 (range 0 to 6). A total of 112 nodes were dissected from 58 women; 110 of these nodes were considered sentinel. One hundred and eight (98%) nodes were hot, 98 (89%) nodes were blue, and 96 (87%) nodes were both hot and blue. Two women had complications; 1 had superficial skin staining and 1 had a superficial skin slough. Both healed uneventfully. No allergic reactions were observed. No radioactive uptake in the thyroid was seen. Iodine-125-labeled methylene blue can be mixed and administered in the operating room, improving hospital efficiency. Patient satisfaction is higher with (125)I-MB than with the technetium 99m sulfur colloid procedure because (125)I-MB does not produce localized burning and other adverse reactions associated with the traditional method, and 125I-MB is administered with the patient under anesthesia. Iodine-125 emits a lower-energy gamma ray than technetium 99m, lowering the surgeon's radiation exposure. Iodine-125-labeled methylene blue SLN identification is safe, cost effective, and produces equivalent outcomes compared with the traditional technique, making it an attractive alternative.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Methylene Blue solution, for microscopy, concentrate according to Ehrlich, concentrated, aqueous solution
Sigma-Aldrich
Methylene Blue solution, for microscopy
Sigma-Aldrich
Methylene Blue solution, suitable for microbiology