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  • Multiphasic control of hepatic protein degradation by regulatory amino acids. General features and hormonal modulation.

Multiphasic control of hepatic protein degradation by regulatory amino acids. General features and hormonal modulation.

The Journal of biological chemistry (1987-12-05)
G E Mortimore, A R Pösö, M Kadowaki, J J Wert

Previous studies with livers from fed rats perfused in the single-pass mode have shown that regulatory amino acids (Leu, Tyr, Gln, Pro, Met, His, and Trp) as a group as well as leucine alone inhibit deprivation-induced protein degradation optimally at 0.5 and 4 times (X) normal plasma amino acid concentrations. However, they lose inhibitory effectiveness almost completely within a narrow zone centered at normal (1 X) levels (Pösö, A. R., Wert, J. J., Jr., and Mortimore, G.E. (1982) J. Biol. Chem. 257, 12114-12120; Pösö, A. R., and Mortimore, G. E. (1984) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 81, 4270-4274). We now report similar effects for tyrosine and glutamine and suggest that this multiphasic dose response is a general feature of the regulatory group. Insulin (2.4 micrograms h-1) selectively modulated the response by abolishing the zonal loss, whereas glucagon (10 micrograms h-1) blocked the initial inhibition (0.5 X); proteolytic suppression was restored at 4 X normal plasma levels. Although the zonal loss of inhibition at 1 X was associated with a near maximal increase in the volume density of macroautophagy, the vacuoles differed from those induced by stringent amino acid deprivation in containing 4.5-fold more smooth than rough endoplasmic reticulum and thus represented a separate population. Surprisingly, the leucine analog, L-alpha-hydroxyisocaproate, elicited multiphasic responses identical to those of L-leucine, including inhibition at 0.1 mM (equivalent to 0.5 X Leu). Inasmuch as alpha-ketoisocaproate is not effective at this concentration, the initial suppression of protein degradation could be mediated from a site that recognizes structural features common to leucine and its hydroxyl analog.

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4-Methylvaleric acid, 99%
4-Methylpentanoic acid, ≥98%, FCC, FG

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