Leishmaniasis, an intracellular protozoal infection in which tissue macrophages are targeted, is transmitted by female sandfly bite and occurs in 98 countries. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is the clinical form of leishmaniasis most frequently associated with HIV, especially in Europe. Both diseases have a synergistic detrimental effect on the cellular immune response. Treatment of VL in patients with underlying HIV-infection is associated with lower cure rates, higher rates of drug toxicity, higher relapse rates and greater mortality than treatment of VL in immunocompetent patients. We report the case of a HIV-1 infected patient with advanced disease who presented VL with multiple relapses. This case highlights the difficulties of treating VL in patients with HIV co-infection.