Although the function of silicon (Si) in plant physiology has long been debated, its beneficial effects on plant resistance against abiotic and biotic stresses, including insect herbivory, have been well documented. In addition, the jasmonate (JA) signaling pathway plays a crucial role in mediating antiherbivore defense responses in plants. However, potential interactions between JA and Si in response to insect attack have not been examined directly. To explore the role JA may play in Si-enhanced resistance, we silenced the expression of allene oxide synthase (OsAOS; active in JA biosynthesis) and CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (OsCOI1; active in JA perception) genes in transgenic rice plants via RNAi and examined resulting changes in Si accumulation and defense responses against caterpillar Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (rice leaffolder, LF) infestation. Si pretreatment increased rice resistance against LF larvae in wild-type plants but not in OsAOS and OsCOI1 RNAi lines. Upon LF attack, wild-type plants subjected to Si pretreatment exhibited enhanced defense responses relative to untreated controls, including higher levels of JA accumulation; increased levels of transcripts encoding defense marker genes; and elevated activities of peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, and trypsin protease inhibitor. Additionally, reduced Si deposition and Si cell expansion were observed in leaves of OsAOS and OsCOI1 RNAi plants in comparison with wild-type plants, and reduced steady-state transcript levels of the Si transporters OsLsi1, OsLsi2, and OsLsi6 were observed in Si-pretreated plants after LF attack. These results suggest a strong interaction between Si and JA in defense against insect herbivores involving priming of JA-mediated defense responses by Si and the promotion of Si accumulation by JA.