Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors and other incretin-related drugs have attracted attention as antidiabetic agents, but they are expensive. The Japanese government has adopted a policy of reducing healthcare costs, and medical institutions must provide medical care while considering economic efficiency. This study was a comparative survey of the usage, treatment effectiveness, and cost of DPP-4 inhibitors. The subjects were patients prescribed DPP-4 inhibitors (sitagliptin, vildagliptin, and alogliptin) at Gifu Municipal Hospital between February 2010 and August 2011. HbA1c: Japan Diabetes Society values (%) and concomitant antidiabetic agents were surveyed for 12 weeks after the start of DPP-4 inhibitors. A cost-effectiveness analysis showed that the cost required for a 0.1% decrease in HbA1c for 12 weeks was the lowest with vildagliptin (2,478 yen; decrease in HbA1c: 0.75% +/- 0.85%). In a cost analysis with a virtual cohort of 1000 patients, the number of patients who achieved the treatment target (HbA1c 6.5%) was estimated with respect to a virtual cohort created based on the HbA1c level (7.59 +/- 1.13%) at baseline of 307 patients, in cases assuming the use of each DPP-4 inhibitor. In addition, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was obtained with sitagliptin 50 mg as the reference. The number of patients achieving the treatment target was the highest with vildagliptin 100 mg (413 of 1000 patients), and the estimated ICER of 28,359 yen was the lowest. Robustness was also confirmed with a sensitivity analysis. These results suggest that vildagliptin provides a superior cost-benefit.