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  • Effects of depuration on oxidative biomarkers in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) after subchronic exposure to cyanobacterium producing cylindrospermopsin.

Effects of depuration on oxidative biomarkers in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) after subchronic exposure to cyanobacterium producing cylindrospermopsin.

Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands) (2014-02-25)
R Guzmán-Guillén, A I Prieto, I Moreno, V Ríos, V M Vasconcelos, A M Cameán
ABSTRACT

Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a cytotoxic polyketide-derived alkaloid produced by several freshwater cyanobacterial species. It is now considered the second most studied cyanotoxin worldwide. Among the toxic mechanisms suggested for CYN pathogenicity are inhibition of protein and glutathione synthesis, genotoxicity by DNA fragmentation, and oxidative stress. The study of depuration of cyanobacterial toxins by aquatic organisms, particularly by fish, is important for fish economy and public health, but in the case of CYN is practically nonexistent. In this work, we investigated the efficiency of two distinct depuration periods, 3 or 7d, in a clean environment, as a mean of restoring the levels of several oxidative stress biomarkers in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) subchronically exposed to CYN by immersion in an Aphanizomenon ovalisporum culture (by adding 10 μg CYN/L every two days during 14 d). Lipid peroxidation (LPO) and DNA oxidation returned to normal values after 7d of depuration, whereas the time needed for restoring of the oxidatively damaged proteins was longer. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and gamma-glutamyl-cysteine-synthetase (γ-GCS) activities recovered after just 3d of depuration, while catalase (CAT) activity needed up to 7d to return to control values. Ratio of reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) returned to control levels after 7d of depuration in both organs. These results validate the depuration process as a very effective practice for detoxification in fish contaminated with these toxins.

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