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  • The combined effects of atrazine and lead (Pb): relative microbial activities and herbicide dissipation.

The combined effects of atrazine and lead (Pb): relative microbial activities and herbicide dissipation.

Ecotoxicology and environmental safety (2014-03-04)
Qinglin Chen, Hui Wang, Baoshan Yang, Fei He
RESUMO

The experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of single and combined pollution from different concentrations of atrazine (field rate, FR, 2.0 mg kg(-1) and 5 times FR, 10 mg kg(-1)) and lead (Pb) (300 mg kg(-1) and 600 mg kg(-1)) on enzyme activity, basal soil respiration (BSR), and net nitrogen (N) mineralization (NNM) in soil after exposure for 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. In addition, residual atrazine was measured in the samples of combined contamination. Results showed that the notable effects of either or both contaminants on the microbial activity and biological processes. Enzyme activity data demonstrated that the order of sensitivity to contamination was urease>invertase>catalase. BSR was strongly stimulated by atrazine/Pb at the early exposure (0-7 days for single contaminant and 7-14 days for combined contaminants). The stimulation effects on BSR were higher at low concentrations of the contamination (FR and Pb300). The combined treatments of 5FR+Pb600 inhibit BSR and NNM. Overall, the parameters associated with N cycling (urease and NNM) were more sensitive than others. Both Pb concentrations (300 and 600 mg/kg) had little influence on the dissipation of high concentrations of atrazine (5FR) during the 28-day-incubation. This study has provided useful information on potential ecotoxicology effects of combined contamination of atrazine and Pb on relative microbial biological process.

MATERIAIS
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Urease from Canavalia ensiformis (Jack bean), Type III, powder, 15,000-50,000 units/g solid
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Urease from Canavalia ensiformis (Jack bean), Type C-3, powder, ≥600,000 units/g solid
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Urease from Canavalia ensiformis (Jack bean), Type IX, powder, 50,000-100,000 units/g solid
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Lead, foil, 150x150mm, thickness 0.5mm, as rolled, 99.95%
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Atrazine solution, 1000 μg/mL in methyl tert-butyl ether, certified reference material
Lead, foil, 50x50mm, thickness 0.25mm, as rolled, 99.95%
Lead, foil, 50x50mm, thickness 0.1mm, as rolled, 99.95%
Lead, wire reel, 10m, diameter 0.25mm, as drawn, 99.95%
Lead, wire reel, 2m, diameter 0.125mm, as drawn, 99.5%
Lead, foil, 100x100mm, thickness 3.0mm, as rolled, 99.95%
Lead, foil, 100x100mm, thickness 3.0mm, as rolled, 99.99+%
Lead, foil, 100x100mm, thickness 6.0mm, as rolled, 99.99+%
Lead, foil, 150x150mm, thickness 0.125mm, as rolled, 99.95%
Lead, foil, 150x150mm, thickness 0.15mm, as rolled, 99.95%
Lead, foil, 150x150mm, thickness 0.1mm, as rolled, 99.95%
Lead, foil, 150x150mm, thickness 0.25mm, as rolled, 99.95%
Lead, foil, 150x150mm, thickness 0.55mm, as rolled, 99.999%

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