Methanogenic burst in the end-Permian carbon cycle.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (2014-04-08)
Daniel H Rothman, Gregory P Fournier, Katherine L French, Eric J Alm, Edward A Boyle, Changqun Cao, Roger E Summons
RESUMO

The end-Permian extinction is associated with a mysterious disruption to Earth's carbon cycle. Here we identify causal mechanisms via three observations. First, we show that geochemical signals indicate superexponential growth of the marine inorganic carbon reservoir, coincident with the extinction and consistent with the expansion of a new microbial metabolic pathway. Second, we show that the efficient acetoclastic pathway in Methanosarcina emerged at a time statistically indistinguishable from the extinction. Finally, we show that nickel concentrations in South China sediments increased sharply at the extinction, probably as a consequence of massive Siberian volcanism, enabling a methanogenic expansion by removal of nickel limitation. Collectively, these results are consistent with the instigation of Earth's greatest mass extinction by a specific microbial innovation.

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Raney®-Nickel, W.R. Grace and Co. Raney®2800, slurry, in H2O, active catalyst
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Nickel, powder, <50 μm, 99.7% trace metals basis
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Nickel, nanopowder, <100 nm avg. part. size, ≥99% trace metals basis
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Nickel, powder, <150 μm, 99.99% trace metals basis
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Nickel, foil, thickness 0.125 mm, ≥99.9%
Nickel, foam, 150x150mm, thickness 1.6mm, bulk density 0.45g/cm3, porosity 95%, 95%
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Nickel, powder, <1 μm, 99.8% trace metals basis
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Nickel, foil, thickness 0.5 mm, 99.98% trace metals basis
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Raney®-Nickel, W.R. Grace and Co. Raney®2400, slurry, in H2O, active catalyst
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Nickel, wire, diam. 0.5 mm, ≥99.9% trace metals basis
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Nickel, foil, thickness 0.1 mm, 99.98% trace metals basis
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Nickel, wire, diam. 0.25 mm, ≥99.9%
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Nickel, rod, diam. 6.35 mm, ≥99.99% trace metals basis
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Nickel, wire, diam. 0.5 mm, ≥99.99% trace metals basis
Nickel, tube, 500mm, outside diameter 1.8mm, inside diameter 1.6mm, wall thickness 0.1mm, hard, 99.5%
Nickel, wire reel, 20m, diameter 0.025mm, as drawn, 99.98%
Nickel, wire reel, 1m, diameter 1.0mm, as drawn, 99%
Nickel, mesh, 100x250mm, nominal aperture 0.73mm, wire diameter 0.25mm, 26x26 wires/inch, open area 55%, plain weave mesh, 99%
Nickel, sphere, 100pcs, diameter 1.0mm, precision sphere grade 200, 99%
Nickel, foil, 50x50mm, thickness 0.30mm, as rolled, 99.98%
Nickel, wire reel, 5m, diameter 1.0mm, hard, 99.98%
Nickel, wire reel, 1m, diameter 0.75mm, as drawn, 99%
Nickel, rod, 100mm, diameter 12.7mm, 99.98%
Nickel, sphere, 200pcs, diameter 3.0mm, precision sphere grade 200, 99%
Nickel, foil, light tested, 100x100mm, thickness 0.015mm, 99.9%
Nickel, foil, 10mm disks, thickness 0.15mm, annealed, 99%
Nickel, foil, 4mm disks, thickness 0.075mm, annealed, 99%
Nickel, foil, 4mm disks, thickness 0.075mm, as rolled, 99.98%
Nickel, foil, 4mm disks, thickness 0.125mm, annealed, 99%
Nickel, foil, 4mm disks, thickness 0.125mm, annealed, 99.98%

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