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  • Supplementary vitamin E, selenium, cysteine and riboflavin for preventing kwashiorkor in preschool children in developing countries.

Supplementary vitamin E, selenium, cysteine and riboflavin for preventing kwashiorkor in preschool children in developing countries.

The Cochrane database of systematic reviews (2010-04-16)
Chibuzo C Odigwe, Geir Smedslund, Regina I Ejemot-Nwadiaro, Chiedozie C Anyanechi, Michael B Krawinkel
RESUMO

Protein Energy Malnutrition is an important cause of child morbidity and mortality in middle- and low-income countries. It has been suggested that excessive free radical activity may be responsible for the clinical manifestation of kwashiorkor. Antioxidants may be able to curb excessive free radical activity and prevent the development of kwashiorkor in susceptible children. To evaluate the benefits of supplementation of vitamin E, selenium, cysteine and riboflavin (alone or in combination) in preventing kwashiorkor. We conducted searches of CENTRAL 2009 (The Cochrane Library 2009 Issue 2), MEDLINE 1966 to 2009, EMBASE 1980 to 2009, CINAHL 1982 to 2009, LILACS 1982 to 2009, Meta register of Controlled trials, Open Sigle, African Index Medicus. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs evaluating vitamin E, selenium, cysteine and riboflavin alone or in combination in healthy pre-school children in middle- and low-income countries. Two authors extracted and independently analysed data. One cluster-RCT including 2372 children met our inclusion criteria. Children were randomised, based on household, either to a supplement containing all four micronutrients or to placebo. No statistically significant difference in the incidence of kwashiorkor between the intervention and control groups could be demonstrated at 20 weeks (RR 1.70; 95% CI 0.98 to 2.42). Nor could any statistically significant difference in all-cause mortality be demonstrated (RR 0.75; 95% CI 0.17 to 3.36). Based on the one available trial, we could draw no firm conclusion for the effectiveness of supplementary antioxidant micronutrients for the prevention of kwashiorkor in pre-school children.

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Supelco
Riboflavin (B2), analytical standard
Riboflavin for peak identification, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
Sigma-Aldrich
(−)-Riboflavin, from Eremothecium ashbyii, ≥98%
Sigma-Aldrich
(−)-Riboflavin, BioReagent, suitable for cell culture, suitable for insect cell culture, ≥98%
Sigma-Aldrich
(−)-Riboflavin, meets USP testing specifications
Supelco
Riboflavin, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material