When intracelluar pathogens enter the host macrophages where in addition to oxidative and antibiotic mechanisms of antimicrobial activity, nutrients are deprived. Human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis is one of macrophage parasitisms, which can replicate and persist for decades in dormancy state in virulent environments. It is very successful in escaping the killing mechanisms of macrophage. Molybdenum (Mo) enzymes involve in the global carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen cycles by catalyzing important redox reactions. There are several Mo enzymes in mycobacteria and they exert several important physiological functions, such as dormancy regulation, the metabolism of energy sources, and nitrogen source. Pterin-based Mo cofactor (Moco) is the common cofactor of the Mo enzymes in mycobacteria but the cofactor biosynthesis is nearly an untapped area. The present article discusses the physiological function of Mo enzymes and the structural feature of the genes coding for Moco biosynthesis enzymes in mycobacteria.
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