Merck

Ultrathin silicon membranes for wearable dialysis.

Advances in chronic kidney disease (2013-11-12)
Dean G Johnson, Tejas S Khire, Yekaterina L Lyubarskaya, Karl J P Smith, Jon-Paul S Desormeaux, Jeremy G Taylor, Thomas R Gaborski, Alexander A Shestopalov, Christopher C Striemer, James L McGrath
RESUMO

The development of wearable or implantable technologies that replace center-based hemodialysis (HD) hold promise to improve outcomes and quality of life for patients with ESRD. A prerequisite for these technologies is the development of highly efficient membranes that can achieve high toxin clearance in small-device formats. Here we examine the application of the porous nanocrystalline silicon (pnc-Si) to HD. pnc-Si is a molecularly thin nanoporous membrane material that is orders of magnitude more permeable than conventional HD membranes. Material developments have allowed us to dramatically increase the amount of active membrane available for dialysis on pnc-Si chips. By controlling pore sizes during manufacturing, pnc-Si membranes can be engineered to pass middle-molecular-weight protein toxins while retaining albumin, mimicking the healthy kidney. A microfluidic dialysis device developed with pnc-Si achieves urea clearance rates that confirm that the membrane offers no resistance to urea passage. Finally, surface modifications with thin hydrophilic coatings are shown to block cell and protein adhesion.

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Silicon, pieces, 99.95% trace metals basis
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Silicon, powder, −325 mesh, 99% trace metals basis
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Silicon, powder, −60 mesh, 99.998% trace metals basis
Silicon, rod, 25mm, diameter 3.15mm, single crystal - random orientation, 100%
Silicon, sheet, 10x10mm, thickness 0.5mm, single crystal, -100, 100%
Silicon, sheet, 10x10mm, thickness 0.6mm, single crystal, -100, 100%
Silicon, sphere, 10pcs, diameter 2.0mm, precision sphere grade 25
Silicon, sheet, 14x14mm, thickness 1.0mm, single crystal, -100, 100%
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Silicon, wafer (single side polished), <111>, N-type, contains no dopant, diam. × thickness 2 in. × 0.5 mm
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Silicon, wafer (single side polished), <100>, N-type, contains no dopant, diam. × thickness 2 in. × 0.5 mm
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Silicon, wafer, <111>, P-type, contains boron as dopant, diam. × thickness 2 in. × 0.3 mm
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Silicon, wafer (single side polished), <100>, N-type, contains no dopant, diam. × thickness 3 in. × 0.5 mm
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Silicon, nanopowder, <100 nm particle size (TEM), ≥98% trace metals basis
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Silicon, sputtering target, diam. × thickness 2.00 in. × 0.25 in., 99.999% trace metals basis
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Silicon, wafer (single side polished), <100>, N-type, contains phosphorus as dopant, diam. × thickness 2 in. × 0.5 mm
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Silicon, wafer (single side polished), contains phosphorus as dopant, <111>, N-type, diam. × thickness 2 in. × 0.5 mm
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Silicon, wafer (single side polished), <100>, P-type, contains boron as dopant, diam. × thickness 2 in. × 0.5 mm
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Silicon, wafer (single side polished), <111>, P-type, contains boron as dopant, diam. × thickness 3 in. × 0.5 mm
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Silicon, wafer (single side polished), <111>, N-type, contains no dopant, diam. × thickness 3 in. × 0.5 mm
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Silicon, wafer (single side polished), <100>, P-type, contains boron as dopant, diam. × thickness 3 in. × 0.5 mm
Silicon, disks, 15.9mm, thickness 0.38mm, single crystal, n-type, 100%
Silicon, rod, 100mm, diameter 12.7mm, single crystal - random orientation, 100%
Silicon, rod, 50mm, diameter 5.0mm, crystalline, 100%
Silicon, rod, 50mm, diameter 2.0mm, crystalline, 100%
Silicon, rod, 100mm, diameter 5.0mm, crystalline, 100%
Silicon, sheet, 52x52mm, thickness 1.0mm, polycrystalline, 99.999%
Silicon, rod, 100mm, diameter 25mm, crystalline, 100%
Silicon, sheet, 25x25mm, thickness 1.0mm, polycrystalline, 99.999%
Silicon, sheet, 14x14mm, thickness 1.0mm, single crystal, -111, 100%
Silicon, rod, 50mm, diameter 6mm, single crystal, -111, 99.999%