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Advancements in n-type base crystalline silicon solar cells and their emergence in the photovoltaic industry.

TheScientificWorldJournal (2014-01-25)
Atteq ur Rehman, Soo Hong Lee
ABSTRACT

The p-type crystalline silicon wafers have occupied most of the solar cell market today. However, modules made with n-type crystalline silicon wafers are actually the most efficient modules up to date. This is because the material properties offered by n-type crystalline silicon substrates are suitable for higher efficiencies. Properties such as the absence of boron-oxygen related defects and a greater tolerance to key metal impurities by n-type crystalline silicon substrates are major factors that underline the efficiency of n-type crystalline silicon wafer modules. The bi-facial design of n-type cells with good rear-side electronic and optical properties on an industrial scale can be shaped as well. Furthermore, the development in the industrialization of solar cell designs based on n-type crystalline silicon substrates also highlights its boost in the contributions to the photovoltaic industry. In this paper, a review of various solar cell structures that can be realized on n-type crystalline silicon substrates will be given. Moreover, the current standing of solar cell technology based on n-type substrates and its contribution in photovoltaic industry will also be discussed.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Silicon, powder, −60 mesh, 99.998% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Silicon, pieces, 99.95% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Silicon, powder, −325 mesh, 99% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Silicon, wafer (single side polished), <111>, N-type, contains no dopant, diam. × thickness 2 in. × 0.5 mm
Sigma-Aldrich
Silicon, wafer (single side polished), <100>, N-type, contains no dopant, diam. × thickness 2 in. × 0.5 mm
Sigma-Aldrich
Silicon, wafer (single side polished), contains phosphorus as dopant, <111>, N-type, diam. × thickness 2 in. × 0.5 mm
Sigma-Aldrich
Silicon, wafer (single side polished), <111>, P-type, contains boron as dopant, diam. × thickness 3 in. × 0.5 mm
Sigma-Aldrich
Silicon, wafer, <111>, P-type, contains boron as dopant, diam. × thickness 2 in. × 0.3 mm
Sigma-Aldrich
Silicon, wafer (single side polished), <100>, N-type, contains no dopant, diam. × thickness 3 in. × 0.5 mm
Sigma-Aldrich
Silicon, wafer (single side polished), <100>, N-type, contains phosphorus as dopant, diam. × thickness 2 in. × 0.5 mm
Sigma-Aldrich
Silicon, wafer (single side polished), <111>, N-type, contains no dopant, diam. × thickness 3 in. × 0.5 mm
Sigma-Aldrich
Silicon, nanopowder, <100 nm particle size (TEM), ≥98% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Silicon, wafer (single side polished), <100>, P-type, contains boron as dopant, diam. × thickness 3 in. × 0.5 mm
Sigma-Aldrich
Silicon, wafer (single side polished), <100>, P-type, contains boron as dopant, diam. × thickness 2 in. × 0.5 mm
Sigma-Aldrich
Silicon, sputtering target, diam. × thickness 2.00 in. × 0.25 in., 99.999% trace metals basis
Silicon, rod, 100mm, diameter 2.0mm, crystalline, 100%
Silicon, rod, 100mm, diameter 25mm, crystalline, 100%
Silicon, rod, 10mm, diameter 2.0mm, crystalline, 100%
Silicon, sheet, 10x10mm, thickness 0.6mm, single crystal, -100, 100%
Silicon, rod, 50mm, diameter 5mm, single crystal, -100, 99.999%
Silicon, rod, 50mm, diameter 5.0mm, crystalline, 100%
Silicon, sheet, 40x40mm, thickness 3.0mm, single crystal, p-type, 100%
Silicon, rod, 100mm, diameter 5.0mm, crystalline, 100%
Silicon, sphere, 50pcs, diameter 2.0mm, precision sphere grade 25
Silicon, rod, 25mm, diameter 3.15mm, single crystal - random orientation, 100%
Silicon, rod, 50mm, diameter 3.15mm, single crystal - random orientation, 100%
Silicon, sheet, 25x25mm, thickness 1.0mm, single crystal, -100, 100%
Silicon, sheet, 52x52mm, thickness 1.0mm, polycrystalline, 99.999%
Silicon, rod, 50mm, diameter 5mm, single crystal, -111, 99.999%
Silicon, disks, 15.9mm, thickness 0.38mm, single crystal, n-type, 100%