The use of coagulation and Fenton oxidation was studied for total organic carbon (TOC) and silica removal from steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) water at 800C and two different concentrations replicating the stream feeding the warm lime softening unit having 675 mg/L TOC and 350 mg/L silica and the blowdown of the once through steam generator having 3700mg/L TOC and 2585 mg/L silica. Coagulation was carried out by the addition of FeCl3, Al(NO3)3 or Ca(NO3)2. The results showed that Fe(III) salt outperformed Al(III) and Ca(II) salts. A two-stage addition of 2.5 g FeCl3 per g TOC intermediated by a filtration unit resulted in approximately 72% TOC removal and more than 80% silica removal while maintaining low solid waste. Comparing results pertaining to coagulant concentration and final pH, it can be easily concluded that silica removal is governed by the resultant pH, whereas TOC removal was accomplished through surface neutralization and localized enmeshment coagulation. Fenton oxidation is proposed to further treat the filtrate obtained from the second stage Fe(III) coagulation. An additional 10% TOC removal could be achieved; at seven times lower H202 dose in the presence of Fe2+ or Fe0 reagent. Moreover, the advanced Fenton process resulted in high silica removal as a result of adsorption onto Fe(OH)3 precipitate, which formed at the equilibrium pH of the system.
Pesquisa. Desenvolvimento. Produção.
Somos um fornecedor global líder para o setor de ciências biológicas, com soluções e serviços para pesquisa, desenvolvimento e produção de biotecnologia, além de produção e desenvolvimento de terapias farmacológicas com medicamentos.