Orthodontic tooth movement implies application of forces that generate an inflammatory process. The myeloperoxidase (MPO) enzyme is found inside neutrophil granules. MPO activity indirectly reflects the level of inflammation. The aim of this study was to measure MPO activity in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and whole saliva in orthodontic patients with different levels of dental crowding at the alignment phase of orthodontic treatment with the same archwires. Twenty patients were classified according to the irregularity index into 2 groups: severe and minimum crowding (10 in each group). MPO activity was evaluated in GCF and saliva at 0 and 2 hours, and 7 and 14 days after the orthodontic appliances were activated. MPO activity was measured using the modified Bradley-Bozeman technique. In both groups, the maximum activity was at 2 hours (P <0.05) after activation. MPO activity remained elevated until day 7, and values similar to baseline were found at day 14 in the GCF and saliva samples. Enzymatic activity did not show statistical differences between the groups. The amount of dental crowding does not seem to influence MPO activity, which showed similar patterns in GCF and saliva, but the values in GCF reflected the inflammatory changes more accurately than did the values in saliva. The quantification of MPO activity is a useful biologic marker as an indirect measurement of inflammation generated with tooth movement independent of the amount of crowding.