To develop a new biological dosimeter based on serum zinc concentration. Male mice (8 weeks old) were exposed to different doses (0, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, or 8.0 Gy) of gamma rays from a (60)Co source. Blood was then collected from the orbital area of these mice, and the serum zinc concentration was detected using the 2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethylaminophenol colorimetric method. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance. The serum zinc concentration in the irradiated mice decreased with increasing dose. Two dose-response relationships fitted to the linear quadratic curve were obtained: One immediately after exposure (y = 0.010x(2) - 0.133x + 0.663, r = 0.983) and the other on the seventh day after exposure (y = 0.008x(2) - 0.127x + 0.695, r = 0.990). The serum zinc concentration continued to decrease until 21 days after exposure. The absorbed doses estimated using both dose-response relationships were close to the actual doses. Serum zinc is a quick, effective, and sensitive biomarker for early biological doses assessment of mice irradiated by gamma radiation.