Bismuth nanoparticles integration into heavy metal electrochemical stripping sensor.

Electrophoresis (2015-05-23)
Miquel Cadevall, Josep Ros, Arben Merkoçi

Between their many applications bismuth nanoparticles (BiNPs) are showing interest as pre-concentrators in heavy metals detection while being applied as working electrode modifiers used in electrochemical stripping analysis. From the different reported methods to synthesize BiNPs we are focused on the typical polyol method, largely used in these types of metallic and semi-metallic nanoparticles. This study presents the strategy for an easy control of the shape and size of BiNPs including nanocubes, nanosferes and triangular nanostructures. To improve the BiNP size and shape, different reducing agents (ethylene glycol or sodium hypophosphite) and stabilizers (polyvinyl pyrrolidone, PVP, in different amounts) have been studied. The efficiency of BiNPs for heavy metals analysis in terms of detection sensitivity while being used as modifiers of screen-printed carbon electrodes including the applicability of the developed device in real sea water samples is shown. A parallel study between the obtained nanoparticles and their performance in heavy metal sensing has been described in this communication.