Comparison of the reinforcing properties of nicotine and cigarette smoke extract in rats.

Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology (2014-02-12)
Matthew R Costello, Daisy D Reynaga, Celina Y Mojica, Nurulain T Zaveri, James D Belluzzi, Frances M Leslie

Tobacco dependence is difficult to treat, with the vast majority of those who try to quit relapsing within the first year. Improvements in smoking cessation therapies may be achieved by improving current preclinical research methods. However, most experimental tests in animals use nicotine alone, ignoring the 8000 other constituents found in tobacco smoke. To improve on this model, we have used self-administration to test the reinforcing properties of aqueous cigarette smoke extract (CSE) in rats, made by bubbling cigarette smoke through a saline solution. CSE is more potent than nicotine alone in both the acquisition and maintenance of self-administration, but did not exhibit higher progressive ratio responding. Mecamylamine and varenicline had similar potencies to block nicotine and CSE self-administration, indicating the involvement of nicotinic receptors in CSE reinforcement. Following extinction of responding, reinstatement was triggered by exposing animals to a pharmacological stressor, yohimbine (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.), alone and in combination with cues. Animals that self-administered CSE were significantly more sensitive to stress-induced reinstatement than those that self-administered nicotine. Ligand binding autoradiography studies showed nicotine and CSE to have similar affinities for different nicotinic receptor types. CSE significantly reduced MAO-A and MAO-B activities in vitro, whereas nicotine did not. Although CSE inhibition of MAO-A activity in vitro was found to be partially irreversible, irreversible inhibition was not observed in vivo. These experiments show that CSE is an effective reinforcer acting via nicotinic receptors. Furthermore, it better models MAO inhibition and is more sensitive to stress-induced reinstatement than nicotine alone, which is a potent trigger for relapse in smokers.

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Cytisine, ≥99.0% (HPLC), ≥99%
Varenicline tartrate, ≥98% (HPLC)
Cytisine, ≥99%, powder