• Início
  • Resultados da busca
  • Organic cultivation of Triticum turgidum subsp. durum is reflected in the flour-sourdough fermentation-bread axis.

Organic cultivation of Triticum turgidum subsp. durum is reflected in the flour-sourdough fermentation-bread axis.

Applied and environmental microbiology (2015-03-01)
Carlo Giuseppe Rizzello, Ivana Cavoski, Jelena Turk, Danilo Ercolini, Luana Nionelli, Erica Pontonio, Maria De Angelis, Francesca De Filippis, Marco Gobbetti, Raffaella Di Cagno
RESUMO

Triticum turgidum subsp. durum was grown according to four farming systems: conventional (CONV), organic with cow manure (OMAN) or green manure (OLEG), and without inputs (NOINPUT). Some chemical and technological characteristics differed between CONV and organic flours. As shown by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis, OMAN and OLEG flours showed the highest number of gliadins, and OMAN flour also had the highest number of high-molecular-mass glutenins. Type I sourdoughs were prepared at the laboratory level through a back-slopping procedure, and the bacterial ecology during sourdough preparation was described by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Before fermentation, the dough made with CONV flour showed the highest bacterial diversity. Flours were variously contaminated by genera belonging to the Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. Mature sourdoughs were completely and stably dominated by lactic acid bacteria. The diversity of Firmicutes was the highest for mature sourdoughs made with organic and, especially, NOINPUT flours. Beta diversity analysis based on the weighted UniFrac distance showed differences between doughs and sourdoughs. Those made with CONV flour were separated from the other with organic flours. Lactic acid bacterium microbiota structure was qualitatively confirmed through the culturing method. As shown by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis, yeasts belonging to the genera Saccharomyces, Candida, Kazachstania, and Rhodotorula occurred in all sourdoughs. Levels of bound phenolic acids and phytase and antioxidant activities differed depending on the farming system. Mature sourdoughs were used for bread making. Technological characteristics were superior in the breads made with organic sourdoughs. The farming system is another determinant affecting the sourdough microbiota. The organic cultivation of durum wheat was reflected along the flour-sourdough fermentation-bread axis.

MATERIAIS
Número do produto
Marca
Descrição do produto

Sigma-Aldrich
D-(+)-Glucose, ≥99.5% (GC)
Sigma-Aldrich
Sucrose, for molecular biology, ≥99.5% (GC)
Sigma-Aldrich
D-(+)-Glucose, powder, BioReagent, suitable for cell culture, suitable for insect cell culture, suitable for plant cell culture, ≥99.5%
Sigma-Aldrich
Sucrose, ≥99.5% (GC)
Sigma-Aldrich
Sucrose, BioXtra, ≥99.5% (GC)
Sigma-Aldrich
D-(−)-Fructose, ≥99%
Sigma-Aldrich
Dextrose, meets EP, BP, JP, USP testing specifications, anhydrous
Sigma-Aldrich
Sucrose, BioUltra, for molecular biology, ≥99.5% (HPLC)
Sigma-Aldrich
D-(+)-Glucose, ACS reagent
Sigma-Aldrich
Sucrose, ≥99.5%
Supelco
Sucrose, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material
Sigma-Aldrich
Sucrose, puriss., meets analytical specification of Ph. Eur., BP, NF
Supelco
Dextrose, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material
Sigma-Aldrich
D-(+)-Glucose, BioXtra, ≥99.5% (GC)
Supelco
Fructose, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material
Sigma-Aldrich
Sucrose, ACS reagent
Sigma-Aldrich
Sucrose, BioReagent, suitable for cell culture, suitable for insect cell culture, ≥99.5% (GC)
Millipore
Sucrose, suitable for microbiology, ACS reagent, ≥99.0%
Sigma-Aldrich
D-(−)-Fructose, BioReagent, suitable for cell culture, suitable for insect cell culture
Sigma-Aldrich
D-(+)-Glucose, BioUltra, anhydrous, ≥99.5% (sum of enantiomers, HPLC)
Supelco
D-(+)-Glucose, analytical standard
Supelco
Sucrose, analytical standard
Sigma-Aldrich
D-(−)-Fructose, BioUltra, ≥99.0% (HPLC)
Sigma-Aldrich
Sucrose, meets USP testing specifications
Supelco
D-(−)-Fructose, analytical standard, analytical standard for fructose assay kit, for use with enzymatic assay kit FA20
Sigma-Aldrich
Sucrose, Grade II, suitable for plant cell culture
Sigma-Aldrich
D-(+)-Glucose, suitable for mouse embryo cell culture, ≥99.5% (GC)
Sucrose, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
Sigma-Aldrich
D-(−)-Fructose, BioXtra
Sigma-Aldrich
Sucrose, Grade I, suitable for plant cell culture