Riemerella anatipestifer, a Gram-negative bacillus, causes septicemia that can result in high mortality for ducklings. In this study, we evaluated the immune response and protective efficacy provided by a subunit vaccine containing recombinant outer membrane protein A (rOmpA) and plasmid constructs containing CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN). Results showed that CpG ODN enhanced both humoral and cell-mediated immunity elicited by rOmpA as early as two weeks after primary immunization. When compared to ducks immunized with rOmpA, ducks immunized with rOmpA+CpG ODN showed higher levels (p<0.05) of antibody titer, T cell proliferation, and percentages of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The relative fold inductions of mRNA expression of Th1-type (IFN-γ and IL-12), and Th2-type (IL-6) cytokines in PBMCs isolated from ducks immunized with rOmpA+CpG ODN were significantly higher than those of the rOmpA group. Homologous challenge result showed that the rOmpA+CpG ODN vaccine reduced the pathological score by 90% in comparison with the saline control. In conclusion, our study found that CpG ODN can enhance both humoral and cellular immunity elicited by a rOmpA vaccine. The rOmpA+CpG ODN vaccine can be further developed as a subunit vaccine against R. anatipestifer.