Novel organic solvents for electrochemistry at the liquid/liquid interface.

The Analyst (2015-02-11)
Peter S Toth, Robert A W Dryfe
RESUMO

Two-phase voltammetry has been carried out using a reverse cell configuration, i.e. with the lower density organic solvent on the top of the aqueous solution in the cell, where the organic solvents contain either nitrile or ketone functional groups. The transfer of tetraphenylarsonium TPAs(+), tetrabutylammonium TBA(+), tetrapropylammonium TPrA(+), and perchlorate CIO4(-) ions across these liquid/liquid interfaces has been observed. The standard Gibbs energies of ion partition from water to di-n-butyl ketone (5-nonanone) were calculated and compared with the previously reported 2-heptanone/water interface. Ion transfer (IT) and electron transfer (ET) were also investigated at the 5-nonanone/water interface. ET was exemplified using the ferri/ferrocyanide redox couple as the aqueous phase couple and the 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) as the organic species.

MATERIAIS
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Sigma-Aldrich
Hydrogen peroxide solution, 30 % (w/w) in H2O, contains stabilizer
Sigma-Aldrich
Sulfuric acid, ACS reagent, 95.0-98.0%
Sigma-Aldrich
Sulfuric acid, 99.999%
Sigma-Aldrich
1,2-Dichloroethane, anhydrous, 99.8%
Millipore
Hydrogen peroxide solution, 3%, suitable for microbiology
Sigma-Aldrich
Potassium hexacyanoferrate(II) trihydrate, ACS reagent, 98.5-102.0%
Sigma-Aldrich
Potassium hexacyanoferrate(III), ACS reagent, ≥99.0%
Sigma-Aldrich
1,2-Dichloroethane, ACS reagent, ≥99.0%
Sigma-Aldrich
Tetrabutylammonium chloride, ≥97.0% (NT)
Supelco
Sulfuric acid concentrate, 0.1 M H2SO4 in water (0.2N), eluent concentrate for IC
Supelco
Electrolyte solution, nonaqueous, 2 M LiCl in ethanol
Sigma-Aldrich
Hydrogen peroxide solution, contains ~200 ppm acetanilide as stabilizer, 3 wt. % in H2O
Sigma-Aldrich
Lithium perchlorate, battery grade, dry, 99.99% trace metals basis
Supelco
Sulfuric acid, for the determination of nitrogen, ≥97.0%
Sigma-Aldrich
Potassium hexacyanoferrate(II) trihydrate, ReagentPlus®, ≥98.5%
Sigma-Aldrich
Lithium perchlorate, ACS reagent, ≥95.0%
Sigma-Aldrich
Sulfuric acid, puriss. p.a., for determination of Hg, ACS reagent, reag. ISO, reag. Ph. Eur., 95.0-97.0%
Sigma-Aldrich
Potassium hexacyanoferrate(III), ReagentPlus®, ~99%
Supelco
Lithium chloride solution, 1 M in ethanol
Sigma-Aldrich
Lithium chloride, BioXtra, ≥99.0% (titration)
Sigma-Aldrich
Potassium hexacyanoferrate(II) trihydrate, ≥99.95% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
1,2-Dichloroethane, suitable for HPLC, ≥99.8%
Supelco
Electrolyte solution, nonaqueous, LiCl in ethanol (saturated)
Supelco
Potassium tetrakis(4-chlorophenyl)borate, Selectophore, ≥98.0%
Sigma-Aldrich
Potassium hexacyanoferrate(III), BioUltra, ≥99.0% (RT)
Sigma-Aldrich
Lithium perchlorate, 99.99% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
7,7,8,8-Tetracyanoquinodimethane, 98%
Sigma-Aldrich
Potassium hexacyanoferrate(II) trihydrate, BioUltra, ≥99.5% (RT)
Sigma-Aldrich
Tetrapropylammonium chloride, 98%
Sigma-Aldrich
Sulfuric acid, puriss., meets analytical specification of Ph. Eur., BP, 95-97%