Poor estrus expression and the difficulty encountered in predicting the time of ovulation compromise the reproductive efficiency of Murrah buffalo cows. Synchronization of ovulation and timed artificial insemination are able to precisely control the time of ovulation and thus avoid the need for estrus detection. Recently, the Estradoublesynch protocol (administration of a PGF2α injection 2 days before Heatsynch protocol; GnRH 0, PGF2α 7, estradiol benzoate [EB] 8) was developed that precisely synchronized ovulation twice, i.e., after GnRH and EB injections and resulted in satisfactory pregnancy rates in Murrah buffaloes. The present study was conducted on 104 cycling and 31 anestrus buffaloes to compare (1) the endocrine changes, timing of ovulations, ovarian follicular growth, and efficacy of Estradoublesynch and Heatsynch protocols in cycling and (2) the efficacy of Estradoublesynch and Heatsynch protocols for the improvement of fertility in cycling and anestrus Murrah buffalo cows. Ovulation was confirmed after all GnRH and EB treatments by ultrasonographic examination at 2-hour intervals. Plasma progesterone and total estrogen concentrations were determined in blood samples collected at daily intervals, beginning 2 days before the onset of protocols until the day of second ovulation detection. Ovulatory follicle size was measured by ultrasonography at six time points (first PGF2α administration of Estradoublesynch protocol every 2 days before the onset of Heatsynch protocol, GnRH administration of both protocols, 2 hours before ovulation detection after GnRH administration of both protocols, second PGF2α injection of Estradoublesynch protocol, PGF2α injection of Heatsynch protocol, EB injection of both protocols and, 2 hours before ovulation detection after EB administration of both protocols). Plasma LH, total estrogen, and progesterone concentrations were determined in blood samples collected at 30-minute intervals for 8 hours, beginning GnRH and EB injections, and thereafter at 2-hour intervals until 2 hours after the detection of ovulation. The first ovulatory rate was significantly higher (P<0.05) in the Estradoublesynch protocol (84.6%) than that in the Heatsynch protocol (36.4%). The first LH peak concentration (74.6±10.4 ng/mL) in the Estradoublesynch protocol was significantly higher (P<0.05) than that of the Heatsynch protocol (55.3±7.4 ng/mL). In Estradoublesynch protocol, the total estrogen concentration gradually increased from the day of GnRH administration coinciding with LH peak, and then gradually declined to the basal level until the time of ovulation detection. However, in Heatsynch protocol, the gradual increase in total estrogen concentration after GnRH administration was observed only in those buffalo cows, which responded to treatment with ovulation. In both Estradoublesynch and Heatsynch protocols, ovulatory follicle size increased by treatment with GnRH and EB until the detection of ovulation. The pregnancy rate after the Estradoublesynch protocol (60.0%) was significantly higher (P<0.05) than that achieved after the Heatsynch protocol (32.5%). Satisfactory success rate using the Estradoublesynch protocol was attributed to the higher release of LH after treatment with GnRH, leading to ovulation in most of the animals and hence creating the optimum follicular size at EB injection for ovulation and pregnancy to occur.