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Noninvasive Biomarker Candidates for Cadmium-Induced Nephrotoxicity by 2DE/MALDI-TOF-MS and SILAC/LC-MS Proteomic Analyses.

Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology (2015-08-12)
Sun Young Kim, Hye Min Lee, Kyeong Seok Kim, Hyung Sik Kim, Aree Moon
ABSTRACT

Cadmium (Cd(2+)) is a major environmental pollutant that induces cytotoxicity by heavy-metal accumulation. Prolonged Cd(2+) exposure leads to cell damage by oxidative stress mainly in the kidneys, a critical organ for detoxification. To identify reliable on invasive protein biomarkers for Cd(2+)-induced nephrotoxicity, we performed 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis/matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectra and stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture/liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses using conditioned media (CM) of HK-2 human kidney epithelial cells treated with CdCl2. Here, we identified heat shock cognate 71 kDa protein isoform1 (HSPA8) and α-enolase (ENO1) as potential biomarker candidates for the evaluation of Cd(2+)-induced nephrotoxicity. Treatment with CdCl2 increased the protein level of HSPA8 in CM and lysates of HK-2 cells. The mRNA level of HSPA8 was also increased by CdCl2 treatment, indicating transcriptional regulation. The level of ENO1 was increased in CM, but not in lysates of CdCl2-treated HK-2 cells. CdCl2 did not affect the mRNA level of ENO1. We provide evidence that the increases of HSPA8 and ENO1 in CM were due to Cd(2+)-induced cell death through oxidative stress. The increases of HSPA8 and ENO1 levels were also detected in CM of HK-2 cells treated with other nephrotoxic agents, such as HgCl2, NaAsO2, cisplatin, amphotericin B, and cyclosporine A. Urine and kidney tissues of CdCl2-treated rats showed increased levels of HSPA8. Taken together, this study identified HSPA8 and ENO1 as noninvasive biomarker candidates by 2 comparative proteomic analyses. These new biomarker candidates may have potential as alternatives to traditional biomarkers for the efficient and sensitive assessment of nephrotoxicity.

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