Pre-B-cell leukemia homeobox 3 (PBX3) is upregulated in various malignancies; however, the role of PBX3 in cervical cancer (CC) is unknown. The purpose of this study was to explore the expression characteristics, clinicopathological significance, and molecular biological function of PBX3 in CC. The expression levels of PBX3 were analyzed in CC cell lines and tumor specimens by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blotting, and immunohistochemical staining. The clinicopathological characteristics associated with PBX3 expression were evaluated. An RNA interference approach was employed to suppress PBX3 expression in CC in vitro and in vivo, determine its role in cell proliferation and analyze its molecular function. We found that PBX3 expression was significantly upregulated in CC cell lines and clinical specimens compared with normal cells and adjacent nontumorous cervical tissues. PBX3 was an independent predictive factor of poor prognosis, and its expression was correlated with tumor diameter, pathological grading, lymph node metastasis, invasion depth, vascular invasion, and clinical stage of CC. Multivariate analysis suggested that PBX3 expression may represent an independent prognostic indicator of the survival of CC patients. CC patients with high PBX3 expression exhibited reduced overall survival compared with those with low PBX3 expression. Additionally, stable downregulation of PBX3 expression in CC cell lines suppressed cell proliferation and decreased p-AKT protein expression levels in vitro. Similarly, in vivo assays demonstrated that PBX3 downregulation in CC cells markedly inhibited tumor size and weight. Overall, we demonstrated that PBX3 can promote CC cell proliferation via the AKT signaling pathway and that it may serve as a prognostic marker. Our data indicate that inactivation of PBX3 may be an effective clinical treatment for CC.