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≥99% (titration)

Piperazine-N,N′-bis(2-ethanesulfonic acid), Piperazine-1,4-bis(2-ethanesulfonic acid), 1,4-Piperazinediethanesulfonic acid
Empirical Formula (Hill Notation):
CAS Number:
Molecular Weight:
EC Number:
MDL number:
PubChem Substance ID:

Quality Level


≥99% (titration)


crystalline powder

useful pH range


pKa (25 °C)



>300 °C (lit.)


1 M NaOH: 20 + 80 mL g, clear, colorless


diagnostic assay manufacturing

SMILES string




InChI key


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General description

PIPES is a member of the ethanesulfonic acid buffer series, first introduced by Good et al., developed to meet certain criteria: midrange pKa, maximum water solubility and minimum solubility in all other solvents, minimal salt effects, minimal change in pKa with temperature, chemically and enzymatically stable, minimal absorption in visible or UV spectral range and easily synthesized. Since its pKa at 37 °C is near physiological pH, PIPES has applications in cell culture work.


Glutaraldehyde fixation of plant and animal tissue samples can cause loss of lipid, leading to apparent morphological changes. Lipid loss and artifacts were minimized when PIPES was used to buffer the glutaraldehyde fixative.,
Alkaline phosphatase activity is lost selectively from certain rat hepatocyte organelles when fixed for ultracytochemistry with cacodylate-buffered glutaraldehyde. When PIPES was used as buffer, retention of activity was 60% greater.
Fixation of fungal zoospores for fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy was optimal with a combination of glutaraldehyde and formaldehyde in PIPES buffer.


25, 100, 500 g in poly bottle
25 kg in poly drum
1 kg in poly bottle


Sigma-Aldrich offers BioPerformance Certified cell culture-tested PIPES (Product No. P1851) as well as several different salts for convenience in buffer preparation, and PIPES BioXtra (Product No. P8203) which is tested for the presence of trace metals.

Preparation Note

Buffers can be prepared by adding a solution of base to PIPES free acid to titrate to the appropriate pH, or by mixing equimolar solutions of the monosodium salt and the disodium salt to titrate to the appropriate pH.

Storage Class Code

13 - Non Combustible Solids



Flash Point(F)

Not applicable

Flash Point(C)

Not applicable

Personal Protective Equipment

dust mask type N95 (US), Eyeshields, Gloves

Certificate of Analysis

Enter Lot Number to search for Certificate of Analysis (COA).

Certificate of Origin

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K Yamamoto et al.
Histochemistry, 77(3), 339-351 (1983-01-01)
Effects of NaOH-PIPES buffer used as a vehicle for aldehyde fixative on alkaline phosphatase (ALPase) activity demonstrated cyto- and biochemically were compared with those of routinely used cacodylate buffer. The reaction products showing ALPase activity demonstrated ultracytochemically were confined to
A R Hardham
The journal of histochemistry and cytochemistry : official journal of the Histochemistry Society, 33(2), 110-118 (1985-02-01)
The study of the surface properties of zoospores and cysts of the fungus Phytophthora cinnamomi required a fixation regime that would preserve the cells adequately and not interfere with binding and detection of probes on the cell surface. When they
The role of the buffer in the fixation of biological specimens for transmission and scanning electron microscopy
Schiff, R.I. and Gennaro, J.F., Jr.
Scanning, 2, 135-135 (1979)
Use of PIPES buffer in the fixation of plant cells for electron microscopy
Salema, R. and Brandao, I.
Journal of Submicroscopic Cytology, 9, 79-79 (1973)
Buffers for enzymes.
J S Blanchard
Methods in enzymology, 104, 404-414 (1984-01-01)

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