Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SQR9 is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) with outstanding abilities to enhance plant growth and to control soil-borne diseases. Root exudates is known to play important roles in plant-microbe interactions. To explore the rhizosphere interactions and plant-beneficial characteristics of SQR9, the complete genome sequence as well as the transcriptome in response to maize root exudates under biofilm-forming conditions were elucidated. Maize root exudates stimulated SQR9 biofilm formation in liquid culture, which is known to be positively correlated with enhanced root colonization. Transcriptional profiling via RNA-sequencing of SQR9 under static conditions indicated that, at 24 h post-inoculation, root exudates stimulated the expression of metabolism-relevant genes, while at 48 h post-inoculation, genes related to extracellular matrix production (tapA-sipW-tasA operon) were activated by root exudates. The individual components in maize root exudates that stimulated biofilm formation included glucose, citric acid, and fumaric acid, which either promoted the growth of SQR9 cells or activated extracellular matrix production. In addition, numerous groups of genes involved in rhizosphere adaptation and in plant-beneficial traits, including plant polysaccharide utilization, cell motility and chemotaxis, secondary antibiotics synthesis clusters, and plant growth promotion-relevant, were identified in the SQR9 genome. These genes also appeared to be induced by the maize root exudates. Enhanced biofilm formation of B. amyloliquefaciens SQR9 by maize root exudates could mainly be attributed to promoting cell growth and to inducing extracellular matrix production. The genomic analysis also highlighted the elements involved in the strain's potential as a PGPR. This study provides useful information for understanding plant-rhizobacteria interactions and hence for promoting the agricultural applications of this strain.