Chemical Vapor Deposition

Process of sequential reactions during atomic layer chemical vapor deposition (ALCVD).

Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) is a method of epitaxially depositing films of solid materials on the surface of a substrate during the vapor phase of a controlled chemical reaction. CVD, also called thin-film deposition, is used prevalently for electronics, optoelectronics, catalysis, and energy applications, such as semiconductors, silicon wafer preparation, and printable solar cells.   

The CVD technique is a versatile and quick method to support film growth, enabling the generation of pure coatings with uniform thickness and controlled porosity, even on complicated or contoured surfaces. In addition, large-area and selective CVD is possible on patterned substrates. CVD provides a scalable, controllable, and cost-effective growth method for the bottom-up synthesis of two-dimensional (2D) materials or thin films such as metals (e.g., silicon, tungsten), carbon (e.g., graphene, diamond), arsenides, carbides, nitrides, oxides, and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs). To synthesize well-ordered thin films, high-purity metal precursors (organometallics, halides, alkyls, alkoxides, and ketonates) are required.

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The composition and morphology of layers varies depending on the chosen precursors and substrate, temperature, chamber pressure, carrier gas flow rate, quantity and ratio of source materials, and source-substrate distance for the CVD process. Atomic layer deposition (ALD), a subclass of CVD, can provide further control of thin film deposition through sequential, self-limiting reactions of precursors on a substrate.

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