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L2630

Sigma-Aldrich

Lipopolysaccharides from Escherichia coli O111:B4

purified by phenol extraction

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Synonym(s):
LPS
EC Number:
MDL number:
NACRES:
NA.25

biological source

Escherichia coli (O111:B4)

Quality Level

form

lyophilized powder

purified by

phenol extraction

technique(s)

ELISA: suitable
cell based assay: suitable
ligand binding assay: suitable

impurities

≤3.00% protein (Lowry-TCA)

color

off-white to faint yellow

solubility

water: soluble

application(s)

cell analysis
clinical research
life science and biopharma

shipped in

ambient

storage temp.

2-8°C

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1 of 4

This Item
L4130L3012L3023
form

lyophilized powder

form

lyophilized powder

form

lyophilized powder

form

lyophilized powder

technique(s)

ELISA: suitable, cell based assay: suitable, ligand binding assay: suitable

technique(s)

-

technique(s)

-

technique(s)

-

impurities

≤3.00% protein (Lowry-TCA)

impurities

1-10% Protein (Lowry)

impurities

<1% Protein

impurities

-

color

off-white to faint yellow

color

white to light yellow

color

white to faint yellow

color

white to beige

solubility

water: soluble

solubility

water: soluble

solubility

water: soluble

solubility

water: soluble

General description

Lipopolysaccharide is a glycolipid, that is composed of carbohydrates linked to fatty acids. Lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) are characteristic components of the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria. A typical LPS molecule has lipid A (a glucosamine-based phospholipid), a relatively short core oligosaccharide and a distal polysaccharide (O-antigen). LPSs contribute to the integrity of the outer membrane, and protect the cell against the action of bile salts and lipophilic antibiotics. They stimulate host cells via TLR2 and TLR4 (toll like receptors). This stimulation results in the generation of various proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNFα (tumor necrosis factor), IL-1 (interleukin 1) and IL-6.
This product is phenol extracted from Escherichia coli serotype O111:B4. The source strain is from a private collection. This LPS serotype has been used to stimulate B-cells and induce NOS (nitric oxide synthase) in human hepatocytes.

Application

Lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) from Escherichia coli O111:B4 have been used:

  • for the stimulation of macrophages
  • for LPS preconditioning in mice
  • to induce acute kidney injury in mice
  • to induce acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in mice to study the anti-inflammatory effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSCs)-derived exosomes
  • to induce hyperinflammatory status in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infected mice
Lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) are characteristic components of the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria. LPS and its lipid A moiety stimulate cells of the innate immune system by the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), a member of the Toll-like receptor protein family, which recognizes common pathogen-associated molecular-patterns (PAMPs).

Biochem/physiol Actions

Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) serve as a part of the outer membrane, this makes the outer membrane permeable to hydrophobic molecules such as antimicrobial substances that make Gram-negative bacteria innately resistant. LPS functions in bacteria-host interactions that regulate the host system responses.

Preparation Note

The product is soluble in water (5 mg/ml) or cell culture medium (1 mg/ml) yielding a hazy, faint yellow solution. A more concentrated, though still hazy, solution (20 mg/ml) has been achieved in aqueous saline after vortexing and warming to 70-80 oC. Lipopolysaccharides are molecules that form micelles in every solvent. Hazy solutions are observed in water and phosphate buffered saline. Organic solvents do not give clearer solutions. Methanol yields a turbid suspension with floaters, while water yields a homogeneously hazy solution.

Other Notes

To gain a comprehensive understanding of our extensive range of Lipopolysaccharides for your research, we encourage you to visit our Carbohydrates Category page.

Pictograms

Skull and crossbones

Signal Word

Danger

Hazard Statements

Hazard Classifications

Acute Tox. 2 Oral

Storage Class Code

6.1A - Combustible, acute toxic Cat. 1 and 2 / very toxic hazardous materials

WGK

WGK 3

Flash Point(F)

Not applicable

Flash Point(C)

Not applicable

Personal Protective Equipment

dust mask type N95 (US), Eyeshields, Gloves

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G Forn-Cuní et al.
Scientific reports, 7, 41905-41905 (2017-02-06)
Zebrafish (Danio rerio), largely used as a model for studying developmental processes, has also emerged as a valuable system for modelling human inflammatory diseases. However, in a context where even mice have been questioned as a valid model for these
Endotoxin preconditioning protects against the cytotoxic effects of TNFalpha after stroke: a novel role for TNFalpha in LPS-ischemic tolerance.
Rosenzweig HL et al.
Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, 27, 1663-1663 (2007)
Aya Yanagawa et al.
PloS one, 12(11), e0185370-e0185370 (2017-11-10)
Behavioral resistance protects insects from microbial infection. However, signals inducing insect hygiene behavior are still relatively unexplored. Our previous study demonstrated that olfactory signals from microbes enhance insect hygiene behavior, and gustatory signals even induce the behavior. In this paper
Lei Li et al.
Shock (Augusta, Ga.), 51(6), 770-779 (2018-12-19)
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), once thought to be transcriptional noise, have been recently shown to regulate a variety of biological processes. However, their roles in the inflammatory response are largely unexplored. In this study, we performed high-throughput sequencing to identify
An LRR domain-containing membrane protein gene in rotifer Brachionus plicatilis: Sequence feature, expression pattern, and ligands binding activity
Wang Y, et al.
Developmental and Comparative Immunology, 141 , 104634 -104634 (2023)

Articles

Explore the structure, function, and diverse applications of Lipopolysaccharides. Discover their role in bacteria, serological specificity, and research potential.

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