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3,7-Dimethyl-1-(5-oxohexyl)xanthine, Trental
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H2O: ≥43 mg/mL


Sanofi Aventis

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Pentoxifylline has been used:
  • used in the combinatorial treatment with itraconazole for paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM)
  • to treat harvested sperms to check the effect of ′pentoxifylline exposed sperms′ in the contribution of embryonic growth
  • to intrathecally inject female and male mice to investigate whether astrocytes and microglia could be causally involved in the maintenance of pain-like behaviour

Biochem/physiol Actions

Pentoxifylline (PTX) is considered as a nonspecific phosphodiesterase inhibitor. It possesses rheologic properties. Pentoxifylline is used to treat peripheral vascular disease. It has the ability to block the phosphorylation of I kappa B-alpha (IĸBα) in serines 32 and 36.
Phosphodiesterase inhibitor; inhibits synthesis of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α).

Features and Benefits

This compound is featured on the Histamine Synthesis and Metabolism and Phosphodiesterases pages of the Handbook of Receptor Classification and Signal Transduction. To browse other handbook pages, click here.
This compound is a featured product for Cyclic Nucleotide research. Click here to discover more featured Cyclic Nucleotide products. Learn more about bioactive small molecules for other areas of research at
This compound was developed by Sanofi Aventis. To browse the list of other pharma-developed compounds and Approved Drugs/Drug Candidates, click here.

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Quotes and Ordering

B K Reuter et al.
The American journal of physiology, 277(4 Pt 1), G847-G854 (1999-10-12)
Although the ability of nonsteriodal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to injure the small intestine has been well established in humans and animals, the mechanism involved in this type of injury has yet to be elucidated. The cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)
PP-023-Effect of ICSI with `pentoxifylline exposed sperms? on subsequent embryo development
Mangoli V S, et al.
Reproductive Biomedicine Online, 32, S11-S11 (2016)
Combined itraconazole-pentoxifylline treatment promptly reduces lung fibrosis induced by chronic pulmonary paracoccidioidomycosis in mice
Naranjo T W, et al.
Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 24(1), 81-91 (2011)
Xinfang Huang et al.
Cellular & molecular immunology, 18(4), 969-978 (2021-03-13)
T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are crucial for regulating autoimmune inflammation and protective immunity against viral infection. However, the molecular mechanism controlling Tfh cell differentiation is poorly understood. Here, through two mixed bone marrow chimeric experiments, we identified Peli1, a
Teresa Fernandez-Zafra et al.
Pain, 160(1), 224-236 (2018-09-25)
Recent studies have suggested a sexually dimorphic role of spinal glial cells in the maintenance of mechanical hypersensitivity in rodent models of chronic pain. We have used the collagen antibody-induced arthritis (CAIA) mouse model to examine differences between males and

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Cyclic nucleotides, including cyclic AMP (cAMP), cyclic GMP (cGMP) and cyclic ADP-ribose, have been extensively studied as second messengers of intracellular events initiated by activation of GPCRs. cAMP modifies cell function in all eukaryotic cells, principally through the activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), but also through cAMP-gated ion channels and guanine nucleotide exchange factors directly activated by cAMP.

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