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NOD2 promotes dopaminergic degeneration regulated by NADPH oxidase 2 in 6-hydroxydopamine model of Parkinson's disease.

Journal of neuroinflammation (2018-08-31)
Li Cheng, Lin Chen, Xinbing Wei, Yimeng Wang, Zhiping Ren, Shenglan Zeng, Xiumei Zhang, Haitao Wen, Chengjiang Gao, Huiqing Liu
ABSTRACT

In Parkinson's disease (PD), loss of striatal dopaminergic (DA) terminals and degeneration of DA neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) are associated with inflammation. Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein (NOD)2, one of the first discovered NOD-like receptors, plays an important role in inflammation. However, the role of NOD2 has not been elucidated in PD. NOD2 mRNA and protein expression in the SN and the striatum of C57BL/6 mice treated with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) was measured. We next investigated the potential contribution of the NOD2-dependent pathway to 6-OHDA-induced DA degeneration using NOD2-deficient (NOD2-/-) mice. Assays examining DA degeneration and inflammation include HPLC, Western blot, immunohistochemistry, TUNEL staining, and cytometric bead array. To further explore a possible link between NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) and NOD2 signaling in PD, microglia were transfected with shRNA specific to NOX2 in vitro and apocynin were given to mice subjected to 6-OHDA and muramyl dipeptide (MDP) striatal injection. The expression of NOD2 was upregulated in an experimental PD model induced by the neurotoxin 6-OHDA. NOD2 deficiency resulted in a protective effect against 6-OHDA-induced DA degeneration and neuronal death, which was associated with the attenuated inflammatory response. Moreover, silencing of NOX2 in microglia suppressed the expression of NOD2 and the inflammatory response induced by 6-OHDA and attenuated the toxicity of conditioned medium from 6-OHDA or MDP-stimulated microglia to neuronal cells. Furthermore, apocynin treatment inhibited NOD2 upregulation and DA degeneration in the SN of WT mice induced by 6-OHDA and MDP. This study provides the direct evidence that NOD2 is related to 6-OHDA-induced DA degeneration through NOX2-mediated oxidative stress, indicating NOD2 is a novel innate immune signaling molecule participating in PD inflammatory response.

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