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  • Downregulation of sirtuin 3 by palmitic acid increases the oxidative stress, impairment of mitochondrial function, and apoptosis in liver cells.

Downregulation of sirtuin 3 by palmitic acid increases the oxidative stress, impairment of mitochondrial function, and apoptosis in liver cells.

Journal of biochemical and molecular toxicology (2019-04-09)
Garima Sharma, Arti Parihar, Priyanka Parihar, Mordhwaj Singh Parihar
ABSTRACT

Elevated levels of saturated fatty acids show a strong cytotoxic effect in liver cells. Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3), a mitochondrially localized member of NAD+ -dependent deacetylase has been shown to protect hepatocytes against the oxidative stress. The role of SIRT3 on the cytotoxicity caused by fatty acids in liver cells is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression level of SIRT3, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial impairments in human hepatoma HepG2 cells exposed to palmitic acid (PA). Our results showed that PA treatment caused the deposition of lipid droplets and resulted in an increased expression of tumor necrosis factor-α in a dose-dependent manner. Excessive accumulation of PA induces the reactive oxygen species formation and apoptosis while dissipating the mitochondrial transmembrane potential. The level of SIRT3 expression in both nuclear and mitochondrial fractions in HepG2 cells was decreased with the increase in PA concentrations. However, in the cytosolic fraction, the SIRT3 was undetectable. In conclusion, our results showed that PA caused an increase in inflammation and oxidative stress in HepG2 cells. The exposure of PA also resulted in the decline in transmembrane potential and an increase in apoptosis. The underexpression of nuclear and mitochondrial SIRT3 by PA suggests that the PA target the process that regulates the stress-related gene expression and mitochondrial functions.