The perinuclear zone (PNZ) of the supraoptic nucleus (SON) contains some GABAergic and cholinergic neurons thought to innervate the SON proper. In mice expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) in association with glutamate decarboxylase (GAD)65 we found an abundance of GAD65-eGFP neurons in the PNZ, whereas in mice expressing GAD67-eGFP, there were few labeled PNZ neurons. In mice expressing choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-eGFP, large, brightly fluorescent and small, dimly fluorescent ChAT-eGFP neurons were present in the PNZ. The small ChAT-eGFP and GAD65-eGFP neurons exhibited a low-threshold depolarizing potential consistent with a low-threshold spike, with little transient outward rectification. Large ChAT-eGFP neurons exhibited strong transient outward rectification and a large hyperpolarizing spike afterpotential, very similar to that of magnocellular vasopressin and oxytocin neurons. Thus the large soma and transient outward rectification of large ChAT-eGFP neurons suggest that these neurons would be difficult to distinguish from magnocellular SON neurons in dissociated preparations by these criteria. Large, but not small, ChAT-eGFP neurons were immunostained with ChAT antibody (AB144p). Reconstructed neurons revealed a few processes encroaching near and passing through the SON from all types but no clear evidence of a terminal axon arbor. Large ChAT-eGFP neurons were usually oriented vertically and had four or five dendrites with multiple branches and an axon with many collaterals and local arborizations. Small ChAT-eGFP neurons had a more restricted dendritic tree compared with parvocellular GAD65 neurons, the latter of which had long thin processes oriented mediolaterally. Thus many of the characteristics found previously in unidentified, small PNZ neurons are also found in identified GABAergic neurons and in a population of smaller ChAT-eGFP neurons.