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Diallyl disulphide-loaded spherical gold nanoparticles and acorn-like silver nanoparticles synthesised using onion extract: catalytic activity and cytotoxicity.

Artificial cells, nanomedicine, and biotechnology (2020-06-05)
You Jeong Lee, Song-Hyun Cha, Hyunjo Kim, Sung Eun Choi, Seonho Cho, Youmie Park
ABSTRACT

Onion (Allium cepa) extract was used for the green synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles. Each colloidal solution exhibited surface plasmon resonance, with a peak at 532 nm for gold nanoparticles and 391 nm for silver nanoparticles. Microscopic results confirmed the presence of spherical shapes. The X-ray diffraction pattern demonstrated a face-centered cubic structure. Both nanoparticles had negative zeta potentials and retained colloidal stability in cell culture medium. Catalytic applications were evaluated for 4-nitrophenol reduction and methyl orange degradation reactions by monitoring with UV-visible spectrophotometry. Furthermore, the nanoparticles demonstrated no significant cytotoxicity against human pancreas ductal adenocarcinoma cells (PANC-1) and human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells (HT-29). PEGylation and diallyl disulphide loading of the gold and silver nanoparticles meaningfully reduced the cell viability of both cell lines. Furthermore, diallyl disulphide loading resulted in more cytotoxicity against PANC-1 cells than against HT-29 cells. Additionally, the gold nanoparticles were more cytotoxic than the silver nanoparticles upon diallyl disulphide loading. Interestingly, after PEGylation and diallyl disulphide loading, the silver nanoparticles exhibited acorn-like shapes, while the gold nanoparticles retained spherical shapes. This result suggested that nanoparticles green-synthesised by onion extract have possibilities as nanocatalysts and drug delivery nanocarriers for catalytic and nanomedicine applications.

MATERIALS
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Sigma-Aldrich
Diallyl disulfide, ≥98% (HPLC)