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In vitro and in vivo investigation of osteogenic properties of self-contained phosphate-releasing injectable purine-crosslinked chitosan-hydroxyapatite constructs.

Scientific reports (2020-07-16)
Kaushar Jahan, Garthiga Manickam, Maryam Tabrizian, Monzur Murshed
ABSTRACT

Bone fracture repair is a multifaceted, coordinated physiological process that requires new bone formation and resorption, eventually returning the fractured bone to its original state. Currently, a variety of different approaches are pursued to accelerate the repair of defective bones, which include the use of 'gold standard' autologous bone grafts. However, such grafts may not be readily available, and procedural complications may result in undesired outcomes. Considering the ease of use and tremendous customization potentials, synthetic materials may become a more suitable alternative of bone grafts. In this study, we examined the osteogenic potential of guanosine 5'-diphosphate-crosslinked chitosan scaffolds with the incorporation of hydroxyapatite, with or without pyrophosphatase activity, both in vitro and in vivo. First, scaffolds embedded with cells were characterized for cell morphology, viability, and attachment. The cell-laden scaffolds were found to significantly enhance proliferation for up to threefold, double alkaline phosphatase activity and osterix expression, and increase calcium phosphate deposits in vitro. Next, chitosan scaffolds were implanted at the fracture site in a mouse model of intramedullary rod-fixed tibial fracture. Our results showed increased callus formation at the fracture site with the scaffold carrying both hydroxyapatite and pyrophosphatase in comparison to the control scaffolds lacking both pyrophosphatase and hydroxyapatite, or pyrophosphatase alone. These results indicate that the pyrophosphatase-hydroxyapatite composite scaffold has a promising capacity to facilitate bone fracture healing.

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Sigma-Aldrich
Adenosine 5′-diphosphate sodium salt, bacterial, ≥95% (HPLC)