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A Cdk4/6-dependent phosphorylation gradient regulates the early to late G1 phase transition.

Scientific reports (2021-07-21)
Manuel Kaulich, Verena M Link, John D Lapek, Yeon J Lee, Christopher K Glass, David J Gonzalez, Steven F Dowdy

During early G1 phase, Rb is exclusively mono-phosphorylated by cyclin D:Cdk4/6, generating 14 different isoforms with specific binding patterns to E2Fs and other cellular protein targets. While mono-phosphorylated Rb is dispensable for early G1 phase progression, interfering with cyclin D:Cdk4/6 kinase activity prevents G1 phase progression, questioning the role of cyclin D:Cdk4/6 in Rb inactivation. To dissect the molecular functions of cyclin D:Cdk4/6 during cell cycle entry, we generated a single cell reporter for Cdk2 activation, RB inactivation and cell cycle entry by CRISPR/Cas9 tagging endogenous p27 with mCherry. Through single cell tracing of Cdk4i cells, we identified a time-sensitive early G1 phase specific Cdk4/6-dependent phosphorylation gradient that regulates cell cycle entry timing and resides between serum-sensing and cyclin E:Cdk2 activation. To reveal the substrate identity of the Cdk4/6 phosphorylation gradient, we performed whole proteomic and phospho-proteomic mass spectrometry, and identified 147 proteins and 82 phospho-peptides that significantly changed due to Cdk4 inhibition in early G1 phase. In summary, we identified novel (non-Rb) cyclin D:Cdk4/6 substrates that connects early G1 phase functions with cyclin E:Cdk2 activation and Rb inactivation by hyper-phosphorylation.

Product Number
Product Description

Protease Inhibitor Cocktail, for use with mammalian cell and tissue extracts, DMSO solution
Phosphatase Inhibitor Cocktail 2, aqueous solution (dark coloration may develop upon storage, which does not affect the activity)