Merck

Personal exposure to volatile organic compounds in the Czech Republic.

Journal of exposure science & environmental epidemiology (2012-06-07)
Vlasta Svecova, Jan Topinka, Ivo Solansky, Radim J Sram
ABSTRACT

Personal exposures to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured in the three industrial cities in the Czech Republic, Ostrava, Karvina and Havirov, while the city of Prague served as a control in a large-scale molecular epidemiological study identifying the impacts of air pollution on human health. Office workers from Ostrava and city policemen from Karvina, Havirov and Prague were monitored in the winter and summer of 2009. Only adult non-smokers participated in the study (N=160). Radiello-diffusive passive samplers were used to measure the exposure to benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, meta- plus para-xylene and ortho-xylene (BTEX). All participants completed a personal questionnaire and a time-location-activity diary (TLAD). The average personal BTEX exposure levels in both seasons were 7.2/34.3/4.4/16.1 μg/m(3), respectively. The benzene levels were highest in winter in Karvina, Ostrava and Prague: 8.5, 7.2 and 5.3 μg/m(3), respectively. The personal exposures to BTEX were higher than the corresponding stationary monitoring levels detected in the individual localities (P<0.001; except m,p-xylene in summer). The indoor environment, ETS (environmental tobacco smoke), cooking, a home-heating fireplace or gas stove, automobile use and being in a restaurant were important predictors for benzene personal exposure. Ostrava's outdoor benzene pollution was a significant factor increasing the exposure of the Ostrava study participants in winter (P<0.05).

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Xylenes, reagent grade
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethylbenzene, anhydrous, 99.8%
Sigma-Aldrich
o-Xylene, anhydrous, 97%
Sigma-Aldrich
p-Xylene, anhydrous, ≥99%
Supelco
o-Xylene, analytical standard
Supelco
p-Xylene, analytical standard
Supelco
p-Xylene, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material
Supelco
o-Xylene, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material
Supelco
p-Xylene solution, certified reference material, 5000 μg/mL in methanol
Supelco
Ethylbenzene, analytical standard
radiello Cartridge Adsorbents, for sampling BTEX and VOCs (thermal desorption), matrix SS net (3 x 8 μm, 4.8 mm diam.), Carbograph, pk of 20
radiello Triangular Support Plate, pk of 20
radiello Cartridge Adsorbents, for sampling Aldehydes, matrix SS net with 2,4-DNPH coated FLORISIL®, pk of 20
radiello Vertical Adapter, threaded for standard use, pk of 20
radiello Cartridge Adsorbents, for sampling BTEX and VOCs (CS2 Desorption), matrix SS net (100 mesh, 5.8 mm diam.), activated with activated charcoal (30-50 mesh), pk of 20
radiello Barcode Labels, pk of 198
radiello Anesthetic Gases and Vapor Sampler
radiello Cartridge Adsorbents, for sampling Anaesthetic Gases/Vapors, matrix SS net with mix of mol sieve and activated charcoal (30-50 mesh), pk of 20
radiello Cartridge Adsorbents, for sampling Ammonia (NH3), matrix microporous PE impregnated with phosphoric acid, pk of 20
radiello Outdoor Shelter, pk of 10
radiello Replacement Mounting Strips, for use with Radiello Outdoor Shelter, pk of 100
Supelco
o-Xylene, suitable for HPLC, 98%
Sigma-Aldrich
o-Xylene, reagent grade, ≥98.0%
Sigma-Aldrich
p-Xylene, suitable for HPLC, ≥99%
Sigma-Aldrich
p-Xylene, ReagentPlus®, 99%
Sigma-Aldrich
Xylenes, ACS reagent, ≥98.5% xylenes + ethylbenzene basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Xylenes, histological grade
Sigma-Aldrich
o-Xylene, puriss. p.a., ≥99.0% (GC)
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethylbenzene, ReagentPlus®, 99%
Sigma-Aldrich
p-Xylene, puriss. p.a., ≥99.0% (GC)