CL 316,243, a β3-adrenergic agonist, was developed as an antiobesity and diabetes drug and causes rapid decreases in blood glucose levels in mice. The mechanisms mediating this effect have not been fully elucidated; thus, the purpose of the current study was to examine the role of fatty acids and interleukin-6, reputed mediators of insulin secretion, in this process. To address this question, we used physiological and pharmacological approaches in combination with knockout mouse models. CL 316,243 treatment in male C57BL6 mice increased plasma fatty acids, glycerol, interleukin-6, and insulin and reduced blood glucose concentrations 2 h following injections. The ability of CL 316,243 to increase insulin and fatty acids and reduce glucose was preserved in interleukin-6-deficient mice. CL 316,243-induced drops in blood glucose occurred in parallel with increases in circulating fatty acids but prior to increases in plasma interleukin-6. CL 316,243-mediated increases in plasma insulin levels and reductions in blood glucose were attenuated when mice were pretreated with the lipase inhibitor nicotinic acid or in whole body adipose tissue triglyceride lipase knockout mice. Collectively, our findings demonstrate an important role for fatty acids in mediating the effects of CL 316,243 in mice. Not only do our results provide new insight into the mechanisms of action of CL 316,243, but they also hint at an unappreciated aspect of adipose tissue -pancreas cross-talk.