This study investigates trace elements and PAHs content in road dust of Isfahan metropolis, central Iran. The mean concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sb and Zn are 22.15, 2.14, 182.26, 66.63, 393.33, 6.95 and 707.19 mg kg(-1), respectively. When compared with upper continental crust, the samples generally display elevated trace element concentrations, except for Co and Cr. The decreasing trend of calculated enrichment factors (EFs) is Cd>Pb>Sb>Zn>Cu>As>Ni>Cr>Co. Calculated potential ecological risk reveals that among the analyzed metals, Cd and Pb, have a higher potential ecological risk. Statistically, two identified main sources of trace elements include road traffic emissions and resuspension of soil particles. As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Sb and Zn in Isfahan road dust are strongly influenced by anthropogenic activity, mainly traffic emissions, while Co, Cr and Ni originate from resuspension of soil natural parent particles. The sum of 13 major PAHs (∑13PAHs) mass concentration ranges from 184.64 to 3221.72 μg kg(-1) with the mean being 1074.58 μg kg(-1). PAHs sources are identified using PCA analysis. It is demonstrated that the PAHs in Isfahan road dust are mainly derived from traffic emission, coal combustion and petroleum. Toxic equivalent concentrations (TEQs) of PAHs in the road dust ranges between 25.021 μg kg(-1) and 230.893 μg kg(-1). High correlation coefficients (r(2)=0.909 and 0.822, p<0.01) between Benzo[a]pyrene, Benzo[b+k]fluoranthene and toxicity equivalent concentrations of road dust indicate that Benzo[a]pyrene and Benzo[b+k]fluoranthenes are major TEQ contributors. The total incremental life time cancer risk (ILCR) of exposure to PAHs from Isfahan metropolis urban dust is 4.85 × 10(-4) for adult and 5.02 × 10(-4) for children. Estimated results of ILCR indicate that Isfahan residents are potentially exposed to high cancer risk via both dust ingestion and dermal contact.