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Evaluation and comparison of three different separation techniques for analysis of retroamide enantiomers and their biological evaluation against h-P2X7 receptor.

Journal of chromatography. B, Analytical technologies in the biomedical and life sciences (2015-02-24)
Davy Baudelet, Christophe Furman, Alina Ghinet, Xavier Dezitter, Sahil Adriouch, Frédéric Capet, Tiphaine Rogez-Florent, Philippe Gautret, Benoit Rigo, Régis Millet, Claude Vaccher, Emmanuelle Lipka
ABSTRACT

The P2X receptors are seven-transmembrane domain G protein-coupled receptors and the 7 subtypes of P2X receptors identified in humans, and named P2X1 to P2X7, are channel receptors whose endogenous ligand is ATP. New antagonists of the P2X7 receptor were developed, since this purinergic receptor was highlighted to be involved in many diseases such as different types of pain, cancer, ischemia, neurodegenerative diseases (including Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases) characterized by inflammatory processes. With the aim of evaluate the impact of chirality on the pharmacological activity of a new P2X7R antagonist, a semi-preparative method was developed in supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC). Among four polysaccharide based chiral stationary phases: Chiralcel OD-H and OJ-H and Chiralpak AS-H and AD-H, the last one namely amylose tris (3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) with a mobile phase consisted of carbon dioxide-ethanol (80:20, v/v), led to the successful separation of the enantiomers in short run time and with good resolution. Limits of detection and quantification were calculated and were found equal for compound 1, to 1.37 μM and 4.57 μM respectively, for peak 1 and were equal to 1.60 μM and 5.30 μM respectively, for peak 2 at λ=210 nm. Before carrying out the pharmacological evaluation of each enantiomer, two complementary methodologies, e.g. liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis were performed in parallel to improve the limits of detection and quantification to assess the enantiomeric purity. HPLC using a Chiralpak AD stationary phase led to four times lower limits of detection and quantification with regard to SFC. In the same time, capillary electrophoresis involving dual cyclodextrins system constituted of a SBE-β-CD and a MM-β-CD mixture enhanced the signal-to-noise ratio and led to similar limits of detection and quantification with regard to SFC. No trace of the other enantiomer was found in the isolated one. Biological activities of individual enantiomers were then evaluated and revealed no cytotoxicity against cell lines and a significant difference in terms of their IC50 values with respect to the investigated racemate (6.43 μM): 3.49 μM for the (R)-enantiomer and >10(-4)μM for the (S)-enantiomer, for compound 1, showing that, this antagonist activity is stereospecific.

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