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Emission characteristics of VOCs emitted from consumer and commercial products and their ozone formation potential.

Environmental science and pollution research international (2015-01-21)
Trieu-Vuong Dinh, Su-Yeon Kim, Youn-Suk Son, In-Young Choi, Seong-Ryong Park, Young Sunwoo, Jo-Chun Kim
ABSTRACT

The characteristics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from several consumer and commercial products (body wash, dishwashing detergent, air freshener, windshield washer fluid, lubricant, hair spray, and insecticide) were studied and compared. The spray products were found to emit the highest amount of VOCs (~96 wt%). In contrast, the body wash products showed the lowest VOC contents (~1.6 wt%). In the spray products, 21.6-96.4 % of the VOCs were propane, iso-butane, and n-butane, which are the components of liquefied petroleum gas. Monoterpene (C10H16) was the dominant component of the VOCs in the non-spray products (e.g., body wash, 53-88 %). In particular, methanol was present with the highest amount of VOCs in windshield washer fluid products. In terms of the number of carbon, the windshield washer fluids, lubricants, insecticides, and hair sprays comprised >95 % of the VOCs in the range C2-C5. The VOCs in the range C6-C10 were predominantly found in the body wash products. The dishwashing detergents and air fresheners contained diverse VOCs from C2 to C11. Besides comprising hazardous VOCs, VOCs from consumer products were also ozone precursors. The ozone formation potential of the consumer and commercial spray products was estimated to be higher than those of liquid and gel materials. In particular, the hair sprays showed the highest ozone formation potential.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Methanol, anhydrous, 99.8%
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethyl alcohol, Pure, 190 proof, ACS spectrophotometric grade, 95.0%
Sigma-Aldrich
Toluene, anhydrous, 99.8%
Sigma-Aldrich
Hexane, anhydrous, 95%
Sigma-Aldrich
Benzene, anhydrous, 99.8%
Sigma-Aldrich
Styrene, ReagentPlus®, contains 4-tert-butylcatechol as stabilizer, ≥99%
Sigma-Aldrich
o-Xylene, anhydrous, 97%
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethylbenzene, anhydrous, 99.8%
Sigma-Aldrich
2-Methylpropane, 99%
Sigma-Aldrich
Decane, anhydrous, ≥99%
Sigma-Aldrich
p-Cymene, 99%
Sigma-Aldrich
Butane, 99%
Sigma-Aldrich
Camphene, 95%
Sigma-Aldrich
Decane, ≥95%
Sigma-Aldrich
3-Carene, 90%
Sigma-Aldrich
p-Cymene, ≥97%, FG
Sigma-Aldrich
Rhein
Sigma-Aldrich
3-Carene, ≥90%
Sigma-Aldrich
Propane, 98%
Supelco
Methanol solution, NMR reference standard, 4% in methanol-d4 (99.8 atom % D), NMR tube size 5 mm × 8 in.
Sigma-Aldrich
Rhein, technical grade
Sigma-Aldrich
Methanol, NMR reference standard
Sigma-Aldrich
Methanol solution, NMR reference standard, 4% in methanol-d4 (99.8 atom % D), NMR tube size 3 mm × 8 in.
Sigma-Aldrich
Methanol-12C, 99.95 atom % 12C