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The effect of Metformin on endometrial tumor-regulatory genes and systemic metabolic parameters in polycystic ovarian syndrome--a proof-of-concept study.

Gynecological endocrinology : the official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Endocrinology (2014-12-17)
Mohamad Nasir Shafiee, Dahlia Abd Malik, Ryia Illani Mohd Yunos, William Atiomo, Mohd Hashim Omar, Nur Azurah Abdul Ghani, Ahmad Zailani Hatta, Claire Seedhouse, Caroline Chapman, Norfilza Mohd Mokhtar
ABSTRACT

The aim of this proof-of-concept study was to determine the effects of three-month Metformin therapy on the expression of tumor-regulatory genes (p53, cyclin D2 and BCL-2) in the endometrium of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). A total of 40 women, aged between 21 and 45 years with PCOS (Rotterdam criteria) were recruited. The participants were assessed at pre- and 3-month-post-Metformin therapy for the menstrual regularities, weight reduction, Ferriman Galway scores, fasting blood glucose (FBG), total cholesterol, LDL, HDL and p53, BCL-2 and cyclin D2 gene expression. Five participants conceived spontaneously after the initial recruitment. Majority (68%) resumed regular menstrual cycles after Metformin. There were significant reduction in BMI (p = 0.001), weight (p = 0.001) and Ferriman Galway scores (p = 0.001). A significant improvement was seen in mean FBG (p = 0.002), total cholesterol (p = 0.001), LDL (p = 0.003) and HDL cholesterol levels (p = 0.015). Tumor suppressor gene (p53) was significantly up-regulated after Metformin (10 out of 14 women), with p value 0.016. BCL-2 and cyclin D2 (oncogenes) were slightly up-regulated without significant difference (p = 0.119 and 0.155, respectively). In conclusion, Metformin therapy improved clinical and metabolic parameters in women with PCOS and up-regulated p53 tumor suppressor gene significantly. Further studies are however required to independently validate our findings.

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