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Proanthocyanidins Prevent High Glucose-Induced Eye Malformation by Restoring Pax6 Expression in Chick Embryo.

Nutrients (2015-08-12)
Rui-Rong Tan, Shi-Jie Zhang, Yi-Fang Li, Bun Tsoi, Wen-Shan Huang, Nan Yao, Mo Hong, Yu-Jia Zhai, Zhong-Fu Mao, Lu-Ping Tang, Hiroshi Kurihara, Qi Wang, Rong-Rong He
ABSTRACT

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is one of the leading causes of offspring malformations, in which eye malformation is an important disease. It has raised demand for therapy to improve fetal outcomes. In this study, we used chick embryo to establish a GDM model to study the protective effects of proanthocyanidins on eye development. Chick embryos were exposed to high glucose (0.2 mmol/egg) on embryo development day (EDD) 1. Proanthocyanidins (1 and 10 nmol/egg) were injected into the air sac on EDD 0. Results showed that both dosages of proanthocyanidins could prevent the eye malformation and rescue the high glucose-induced oxidative stress significantly, which the similar effects were showed in edaravone. However, proanthocyanidins could not decrease the glucose concentration of embryo eye. Moreover, the key genes regulating eye development, Pax6, was down-regulated by high glucose. Proanthocyanidins could restore the suppressed expression of Pax6. These results indicated proanthocyanidins might be a promising natural agent to prevent high glucose-induced eye malformation by restoring Pax6 expression.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
α-D-Glucose, anhydrous, 96%
Sigma-Aldrich
4,4′-Diaminodiphenylmethane, ≥97.0% (GC)
Sigma-Aldrich
Glucose solution, BioUltra, for molecular biology, ~20% in H2O
Sigma-Aldrich
Bicinchoninic acid disodium salt hydrate, ≥98% (HPLC)
Sigma-Aldrich
D-(+)-Glucose solution, 45% in H2O, sterile-filtered, BioXtra, suitable for cell culture
Sigma-Aldrich
D-(+)-Glucose solution, 100 g/L in H2O, sterile-filtered, BioXtra, suitable for cell culture