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Lignin Modification for Biopolymer/Conjugated Polymer Hybrids as Renewable Energy Storage Materials.

ChemSusChem (2015-10-29)
Ting Yang Nilsson, Michal Wagner, Olle Inganäs
ABSTRACT

Lignin derivatives, which arise as waste products from the pulp and paper industry and are mainly used for heating, can be used as charge storage materials. The charge storage function is a result of the quinone groups formed in the lignin derivative. Herein, we modified lignins to enhance the density of such quinone groups by covalently linking monolignols and quinones through phenolation. The extra guaiacyl, syringyl, and hydroquinone groups introduced by phenolation of kraft lignin derivatives were monitored by (31) P nuclear magnetic resonance and size exclusion chromatography. Electropolymerization in ethylene glycol/tetraethylammonium tosylate electrolyte was used to synthesize the kraft lignin/polypyrrole hybrid films. These modifications changed the phenolic content of the kraft lignin with attachment of hydroquinone units yielding the highest specific capacity (around 70 mA h g(-1) ). The modification of softwood and hardwood lignin derivatives yielded 50 % and 23 % higher charge capacity than the original lignin, respectively.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
N,N-Dimethylformamide, anhydrous, 99.8%
Sigma-Aldrich
Acetone, ACS reagent, ≥99.5%
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Chloroform-d, 99.8 atom % D
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Sulfuric acid, ACS reagent, 95.0-98.0%
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Pyridine, anhydrous, 99.8%
Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium hydroxide, reagent grade, ≥98%, pellets (anhydrous)
Sigma-Aldrich
Chloroform, contains 100-200 ppm amylenes as stabilizer, ≥99.5%
Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium hydroxide solution, 50% in H2O
Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium hydroxide, ACS reagent, ≥97.0%, pellets
Sigma-Aldrich
Diethyl ether, contains 1 ppm BHT as inhibitor, anhydrous, ≥99.7%
Sigma-Aldrich
Sulfuric acid, 99.999%
Sigma-Aldrich
N,N-Dimethylformamide, ACS reagent, ≥99.8%
Sigma-Aldrich
Chloroform, anhydrous, ≥99%, contains 0.5-1.0% ethanol as stabilizer
Sigma-Aldrich
Chloroform-d, 99.8 atom % D, contains 0.03 % (v/v) TMS
Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium hydroxide solution, BioUltra, for molecular biology, 10 M in H2O
Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium hydroxide, BioXtra, ≥98% (acidimetric), pellets (anhydrous)
Sigma-Aldrich
Diethyl ether, anhydrous, ACS reagent, ≥99.0%, contains BHT as inhibitor
Sigma-Aldrich
Acetone, puriss. p.a., ACS reagent, reag. ISO, reag. Ph. Eur., ≥99.5% (GC)
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Sodium hydroxide solution, 1.0 N, BioReagent, suitable for cell culture
Sigma-Aldrich
Chloroform, anhydrous, contains amylenes as stabilizer, ≥99%
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Pyridine, ACS reagent, ≥99.0%
Sigma-Aldrich
Pyrrole, reagent grade, 98%
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N,N-Dimethylformamide, for molecular biology, ≥99%
Sigma-Aldrich
Diethyl ether, ACS reagent, anhydrous, ≥99.0%, contains BHT as inhibitor
Sigma-Aldrich
Hydroquinone, ReagentPlus®, ≥99%
Sigma-Aldrich
Diethyl ether, contains BHT as inhibitor, puriss. p.a., ACS reagent, reag. ISO, reag. Ph. Eur., ≥99.8%
Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium hydroxide, puriss., meets analytical specification of Ph. Eur., BP, NF, E524, 98-100.5%, pellets
Sigma-Aldrich
Diethyl ether
Sigma-Aldrich
Cyclohexanol, ReagentPlus®, 99%
Sigma-Aldrich
Chloroform, contains ethanol as stabilizer, ACS reagent, ≥99.8%