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Insulin secretion and signaling in response to dietary restriction and subsequent re-alimentation in cattle.

Physiological genomics (2015-05-28)
Kate Keogh, David A Kenny, Alan K Kelly, Sinéad M Waters
ABSTRACT

The objectives of this study were to examine systemic insulin response to a glucose tolerance test (GTT) and transcript abundance of genes of the insulin signaling pathway in skeletal muscle, during both dietary restriction and re-alimentation-induced compensatory growth. Holstein Friesian bulls were blocked to one of two groups: 1) restricted feed allowance for 125 days (period 1) (RES, n = 15) followed by ad libitum feeding for 55 days (period 2) or 2) ad libitum access to feed throughout (periods 1 and 2) (ADLIB, n = 15). On days 90 and 36 of periods 1 and 2, respectively, a GTT was performed. M. longissimus dorsi biopsies were harvested from all bulls on days 120 and 15 of periods 1 and 2, respectively, and RNA-Seq analysis was performed. RES displayed a lower growth rate during period 1 (RES: 0.6 kg/day, ADLIB: 1.9 kg/day; P < 0.001), subsequently gaining more during re-alimentation (RES: 2.5 kg/day, ADLIB: 1.4 kg/day; P < 0.001). Systemic insulin response to glucose administration was lower in RES in period 1 (P < 0.001) with no difference observed during period 2. The insulin signaling pathway in M. longissimus dorsi was enriched (P < 0.05) in response to dietary restriction but not during re-alimentation (P > 0.05). Genes differentially expressed in the insulin signaling pathway suggested a greater sensitivity to insulin in skeletal muscle, with pleiotropic effects of insulin signaling interrupted during dietary restriction. Collectively, these results indicate increased sensitivity to glucose clearance and skeletal muscle insulin signaling during dietary restriction; however, no overall role for insulin was apparent in expressing compensatory growth.

MATERIALS
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