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Regulation of glucose and insulin release following acute and repeated treatment with the synthetic galanin analog NAX-5055.

Neuropeptides (2015-02-19)
Sean P Flynn, H Steve White

The neuropeptide galanin is widely expressed in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. However there is limited understanding of how individual galanin receptor (GalR1, 2, and 3) subtypes mediate the physiological activity of galanin in vivo. To address this issue we utilized NAX-5055, a systemically available, metabolically stable galanin analog. NAX-5055 displays a preference for GalR1 receptors and possesses potent anticonvulsant activity in vivo, suggesting that NAX-5055 engages central galanin receptors. To determine if NAX-5055 also modulates the activity of peripheral galanin receptors, we evaluated the effect of NAX-5055 on blood glucose and insulin levels in mice. Acute and repeated (once daily for four days) systemic administration of NAX-5055 (4 mg/kg) significantly increased blood glucose levels compared to vehicle treated mice. However, a hyperglycemic response was not observed following systemic administration of NAX-805-1, a scrambled analog of NAX-5055, with critical receptor binding residues, Trp(2) and Tyr(9), reversed. These results suggest that chemical modifications independent of the galanin backbone of NAX-5055 are not responsible for the hyperglycemic response. The effect of NAX-5055 on glucose homeostasis was further evaluated with a glucose tolerance test (GTT). Mice administered either acute or repeated (once daily for four days) injections of NAX-5055 (4 mg/kg) displayed impaired glucose handling and reduced insulin response to an acute glucose (1g/kg) challenge. Here we have shown that systemic administration of a centrally active GalR1-preferring galanin analog produces acute hyperglycemia and an inhibition of insulin release in vivo and that these effects are not attenuated with repeated administration. NAX-5055 thus provides a new pharmacological tool to further the understanding of function of both central and peripheral GalR1 receptors in vivo.

Product Number
Product Description

D-(+)-Glucose, ≥99.5% (GC)
D-(+)-Glucose, powder, BioReagent, suitable for cell culture, suitable for insect cell culture, suitable for plant cell culture, ≥99.5%
Dextrose, meets EP, BP, JP, USP testing specifications, anhydrous
D-(+)-Glucose, ACS reagent
D-(+)-Glucose, BioXtra, ≥99.5% (GC)
D-(+)-Glucose, BioUltra, anhydrous, ≥99.5% (sum of enantiomers, HPLC)
D-(+)-Glucose, suitable for mouse embryo cell culture, ≥99.5% (GC)
D-(+)-Glucose, Hybri-Max, powder, BioReagent, suitable for hybridoma
D-Glucose-12C6, 16O6, 99.9 atom % 16O, 99.9 atom % 12C