• Light-dependent K(+) channels in the mollusc Onchidium simple photoreceptors are opened by cGMP.

Light-dependent K(+) channels in the mollusc Onchidium simple photoreceptors are opened by cGMP.

The Journal of general physiology (2002-10-03)
Tsukasa Gotow, Takako Nishi

Light-dependent K(+) channels underlying a hyperpolarizing response of one extraocular (simple) photoreceptor, Ip-2 cell, in the marine mollusc Onchidium ganglion were examined using cell-attached and inside-out patch-clamp techniques. A previous report (Gotow, T., T. Nishi, and H. Kijima. 1994. Brain Res. 662:268-272) showed that a depolarizing response of the other simple photoreceptor, A-P-1 cell, results from closing of the light-dependent K(+) channels that are activated by cGMP. In the cell-attached patch recordings of Ip-2 cells, external artificial seawater (ASW) was replaced with a modified ASW containing 150 mM K(+) and 200 mM Mg(2+) to suppress any synaptic input and to maintain the membrane potential constant. When Ip-2 cells were equilibrated with this modified ASW, the internal K(+) concentration was estimated to be 260 mM. Light-dependent single-channels in the cell-attached patch on these cells were opened by light but scarcely by voltage. After confirming the light-dependent channel activity in the cell-attached patches, an application of cGMP to the excised inside-out patches newly activated a channel that disappeared on removal of cGMP. Open and closed time distributions of this cGMP-activated channel could be described by the sum of two exponents with time constants tau(o1), tau(o2) and tau(c1), tau(c2), respectively, similar to those of the light-dependent channel. In both the channels, tau(o1) and tau(o2) in ms ranges were similar to each other, although tau(c2) over tens of millisecond ranges was different. tau(o1), tau(o2), and the mean open time tau(o) were both independent of light intensity, cGMP concentration, and voltage. In both channels, the open probability increased as the membrane was depolarized, without changing any of tau(o2) or tau(o). In both, the reversal potentials using 200- and 450-mM K(+)-filled pipettes were close to the K(+) equilibrium potentials, suggesting that both the channels are primarily K(+) selective. Both the mean values of the channel conductance were estimated to be the same at 62 and 91 pS in 200- and 450-mM K(+) pipettes at nearly 0 mV, respectively. Combining these findings with those in the above former report, it is concluded that cGMP is a second messenger which opens the light-dependent K(+) channel of Ip-2 to cause hyperpolarization, and that the channel is the same as that of A-P-1 closed by light.

Product Number
Product Description

8-Bromoadenosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate sodium salt, ≥97% (HPLC), powder
8-Bromoguanosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate sodium salt, ≥98% (HPLC), powder