In this study, we have elucidated the chromosomal imbalances in the multistep pathogenesis and delineated several critical tumor suppressor gene (TSG) loci in multiple myeloma (MM). By using comparative genomic hybridization, allelotyping, and multicolor interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization, 5 MM cell lines and bone marrow CD138+ plasma cells from 88 Chinese patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and early and advanced stages of MM were investigated. In all MGUS and MM samples, chromosome copy number abnormalities were detected. A higher number of chromosomal imbalances and specific genetic alterations are involved in MGUS to MM transition (-6q, +3p, and +1p) and MM progression (+2p and +9q). In addition to -13q, we first found high frequencies (42% to 46%) of -4q involving high percentages (70% to 74%) of clonal plasma cells in both MGUS and MM, suggesting that inactivation of TSG in this region is also a potentially critical genetic event in MM tumorigenesis. By high-resolution allelotyping, we defined a common deletion region on 4q13.3 and found that a candidate TSG, platelet factor 4, was frequently silenced by promoter hypermethylation in MM (15 of 28) and MM cell lines (5 of 5). These data have opened up a new approach in the molecular targeting therapy and provide novel insights into MM tumorigenesis.