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  • Dieldrin-induced neurotoxicity involves impaired mitochondrial bioenergetics and an endoplasmic reticulum stress response in rat dopaminergic cells.

Dieldrin-induced neurotoxicity involves impaired mitochondrial bioenergetics and an endoplasmic reticulum stress response in rat dopaminergic cells.

Neurotoxicology (2017-08-29)
Jordan T Schmidt, Anna Rushin, Jonna Boyda, Christopher Laurence Souders, Christopher J Martyniuk
ABSTRACT

Mitochondria are sensitive targets of environmental chemicals. Dieldrin (DLD) is an organochlorine pesticide that remains a human health concern due to high lipid bioaccumulation, and it has been epidemiologically associated to an increased risk for Parkinson's disease (PD). As mitochondrial dysfunction is involved in the etiology of PD, this study aimed to determine whether DLD impaired mitochondrial bioenergetics in dopaminergic cells. Rat immortalized dopaminergic N27 cells were treated for 24 or 48h with one dose of either a solvent control, 2.5, 25, or 250μM DLD. Dopaminergic cells treated with 250μM DLD showed increased Casp3/7 activity at 24 and 48h. DLD also caused a dose dependent reduction in cell viability of ∼25-30% over 24h. No significant effects on cell viability, apoptosis, nor cytotoxicity were detected at 24 or 48h with 2.5μM DLD. Following a 24h exposure to 2.5 and 25μM DLD, viable cells were subjected to a mitochondrial stress test using the Seahorse XFe24 Extracellular Flux Analyzer. Following three independent experiments conducted for rigor, dopaminergic cells that were treated with 2.5 and 25μM DLD consistently showed a reduction in maximum respiration and spare capacity compared to the control group. Molecular responses were measured to determine mechanisms of DLD-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. There were no changes in transcripts associated with mitochondrial membrane potential and permeability (e.g. Ant, Hk1, Tspo, Vdac), nor PI3 K/Akt/mTor signaling or mitochondrial-associated apoptotic factors (Bax, Bcl2, Casp3). However, transcript levels for Chop/Gadd153 (DNA Damage Inducible Transcript 3), an apoptotic gene activated following endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, were 3-fold higher in N27 cells treated with DLD, suggesting that DLD-induced mitochondrial dysfunction is related to ER stress. Dopamine cells were also assessed for changes in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) protein, which did not differ among treatments. This study demonstrates that DLD impairs oxidative respiration in dopamine cells, and ER stress is hypothesized to be associated with the DLD-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. This is important as ER stress is also linked to PD. This study presents mechanistic insight into pesticide-induced mitochondrial dysfunction using a chemical that is reported to be associated to a higher risk for neurodegenerative disease.

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Phosphatase Inhibitor Cocktail 2, aqueous solution (dark coloration may develop upon storage, which does not affect the activity)