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The pH-sensing receptor OGR1 improves barrier function of epithelial cells and inhibits migration in an acidic environment.

American journal of physiology. Gastrointestinal and liver physiology (2015-07-25)
Cheryl de Vallière, Solange Vidal, Ieuan Clay, Giorgia Jurisic, Irina Tcymbarevich, Silvia Lang, Marie-Gabrielle Ludwig, Michal Okoniewski, Jyrki J Eloranta, Gerd A Kullak-Ublick, Carsten A Wagner, Gerhard Rogler, Klaus Seuwen
ABSTRACT

The pH-sensing receptor ovarian cancer G protein-coupled receptor 1 (OGR1; GPR68) is expressed in the gut. Inflammatory bowel disease is typically associated with a decrease in local pH, which may lead to altered epithelial barrier function and subsequent gastrointestinal repair involving epithelial cell adhesion and migration. As the mechanisms underlying the response to pH changes are not well understood, we have investigated OGR1-mediated, pH-dependent signaling pathways in intestinal epithelial cells. Caco-2 cells stably overexpressing OGR1 were created and validated as tools to study OGR1 signaling. Barrier function, migration, and proliferation were measured using electric cell-substrate impedance-sensing technology. Localization of the tight junction proteins zonula occludens protein 1 and occludin and the rearrangement of cytoskeletal actin were examined by confocal microscopy. Paracellular permeability and protein and gene expression analysis using DNA microarrays were performed on filter-grown Caco-2 monolayers. We report that an acidic pH shift from pH 7.8 to 6.6 improved barrier function and stimulated reorganization of filamentous actin with prominent basal stress fiber formation. Cell migration and proliferation during in vitro wound healing were inhibited. Gene expression analysis revealed significant upregulation of genes related to cytoskeleton remodeling, cell adhesion, and growth factor signaling. We conclude that acidic extracellular pH can have a signaling function and impact the physiology of intestinal epithelial cells. The deconstruction of OGR1-dependent signaling may aid our understanding of mucosal inflammation mechanisms.

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Anti-Mouse IgG (whole molecule)–Peroxidase antibody produced in goat, affinity isolated antibody, buffered aqueous solution