All Photos(1)




Duolink® In Situ Probemaker MINUS

Sign Into View Organizational & Contract Pricing

in situ Proximity Ligation Assay reagent, Protein Protein Interaction Assay reagent

product line


Quality Level


immunofluorescence: suitable
proximity ligation assay: suitable


suitable for brightfield
suitable for fluorescence

shipped in

wet ice

storage temp.


Compare Similar Items

View Full Comparison

Show Differences

1 of 4

This Item

immunofluorescence: suitable, proximity ligation assay: suitable


immunofluorescence: suitable, proximity ligation assay: suitable


proximity ligation assay: suitable


proximity ligation assay: suitable


suitable for brightfield, suitable for fluorescence


suitable for brightfield, suitable for fluorescence


suitable for fluorescence


suitable for fluorescence-detection automated sequencing, suitable for microtiter plates

shipped in

wet ice

shipped in

wet ice

shipped in

wet ice

shipped in

dry ice

storage temp.


storage temp.


storage temp.


storage temp.



Test your primary antibodies (IgG-class, mono- or polyclonal) in a standard immunofluorescence (IF), immunohistochemistry (IHC) or immunocytochemistry (ICC) assay to determine the optimal fixation, blocking, and titer conditions. Duolink® in situ reagents are suitable for use on fixed cells, cytospin cells, cells grown on slide, formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded (FFPE), or tissue (fresh or frozen). No minimum number of cells is required.

Let us do the work for you, learn more about our Custom Service Program to accelerate your Duolink® projects

View full Duolink® product list
To perform a complete Duolink® PLA in situ experiment you will need two primary antibodies (PLA, IHC, ICC or IF validated) that recognize two target epitopes. Other necessary reagents include a pair of PLA probes from different species (one PLUS and one MINUS), detection reagents, wash buffers, and mounting medium. Analysis is carried out using standard immunofluorescence assay equipment.HRP is also available for brightfield detection.

Duolink® In Situ Probemaker extends your possibilities even further by allowing you to create your own PLA probes to meet specific assay requirements.

  • Study homodimers
  • Study protein-protein interactions with two primary antibodies derived from the same species
  • Study protein-protein interactions with primary antibodies from any species

Using Duolink® In Situ Probemaker PLUS and MINUS, you simply conjugate the PLUS and MINUS oligo arms directly to your antibodies in a quick and convenient procedure. As well as providing unique capabilities, this also means there is no longer any limitation as to which species your primary antibodies have to be derived from in order perform a Duolink® In Situ assay.

Application Note
The antibody to be conjugated must have a concentration of 1 mg/ml. Do not use volumes larger than 20 ml for conjugation. The antibody must be in an amine free buffer, ideally PBS. The buffer should be carrier free but may contain up to 0.1% BSA, 5% trehalose, and 0.02% sodium azide.
  • Study homodimers by using one monoclonal antibody split into two halves. Label one with the PLUS oligo and the other with the MINUS oligo.
  • Use antibodies from same species: study protein-protein interactions, protein modifications, or single proteins, using two primary antibodies derived from the same species. Label one of the antibodies with the PLUS oligo and the other with the MINUS oligo
  • Use antibodies from any species: study protein-protein interactions, protein modifications, or single proteins, using one or both primary antibodies derived from species other than mouse, rabbit or goat. Label one of your secondary antibodies with the PLUS oligo and the other with the MINUS oligo. Or, combine one labeled secondary antibody with a standard secondary Duolink® In Situ PLA probe.

Features and Benefits

  • No overexpression or genetic manipulation required
  • High specificity (fewer false positives)
  • Single molecule sensitivity due to rolling circle amplification
  • Relative quantification possible
  • No special equipment needed
  • Quicker and simpler than FRET
  • Increased accuracy compared to co-IP
  • Publication-ready results


This product is comprised of the following:
  • Duolink® In Situ oligonucleotide MINUS – one vial with lyophilized activated MINUS oligonucleotide for one conjugation of 20 μg antibody
  • Conjugation buffer – buffer for conjugation reaction
  • Stop reagent – stops conjugation reaction
  • Storage solution – buffer for preserving prepared PLA probe (conjugated antibody)
  • 20x Assay reagent – reagent to be added to experimenter optimized antibody diluent
  • Blocking solution – blocks sample prior to staining with Duolink®In Situ
  • PLA probe diluent – buffer for diluting PLA probe (conjugated antibody) to final assay concentration
See datasheet for more information.

Other Notes

Duolink®proximity ligation assay(PLA®) allows for endogenous detection of protein interactions, post translational modifications, and protein expression levels at the single molecule level in fixed cells and tissue samples.

Follow the Duolink®In Situ Probemaker Protocol to use the Duolink®In Situ Probemaker PLUS and MINUS.This product can be applied to both the Duolink®In Situ Fluorescence Protocol and the Duolink®In Situ Brightfield Protocol depending on the detection reagents used.For more information, see Create Your Own (PLA®)Probes.

Visit our Duolink® PLA Resource Center for information on how to run a Duolink® experiment, applications, troubleshooting, and more.

Legal Information

Duolink is a registered trademark of Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany
PLA is a registered trademark of Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany


Exclamation markEnvironment

Signal Word


Hazard Statements

Hazard Classifications

Aquatic Chronic 2 - Skin Sens. 1

Storage Class Code

10 - Combustible liquids

Certificates of Analysis (COA)

Search for Certificates of Analysis (COA) by entering the products Lot/Batch Number. Lot and Batch Numbers can be found on a product’s label following the words ‘Lot’ or ‘Batch’.

Already Own This Product?

Documents related to the products that you have purchased in the past have been gathered in the Document Library for your convenience.

Visit the Document Library

Difficulty Finding Your Product Or Lot/Batch Number?

Product numbers are combined with Pack Sizes/Quantity when displayed on the website (example: T1503-25G). Please make sure you enter ONLY the product number in the Product Number field (example: T1503).


Product Number
Pack Size/Quantity

Additional examples:





enter as 1.000309185)

Having trouble? Feel free to contact Technical Service for assistance.

Lot and Batch Numbers can be found on a product's label following the words 'Lot' or 'Batch'.

Aldrich Products

  • For a lot number such as TO09019TO, enter it as 09019TO (without the first two letters 'TO').

  • For a lot number with a filling-code such as 05427ES-021, enter it as 05427ES (without the filling-code '-021').

  • For a lot number with a filling-code such as STBB0728K9, enter it as STBB0728 without the filling-code 'K9'.

Not Finding What You Are Looking For?

In some cases, a COA may not be available online. If your search was unable to find the COA you can request one.

Request COA

Roberto Di Maio et al.
Science translational medicine, 10(451) (2018-07-27)
Missense mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) cause familial Parkinson's disease (PD). However, a potential role of wild-type LRRK2 in idiopathic PD (iPD) remains unclear. Here, we developed proximity ligation assays to assess Ser1292 phosphorylation of LRRK2 and, separately
Foivos-Filippos Tsokanos et al.
The EMBO journal, 35(10), 1058-1076 (2016-03-19)
Amino acids regulate TOR complex 1 (TORC1) via two counteracting mechanisms, one activating and one inactivating. The presence of amino acids causes TORC1 recruitment to lysosomes where TORC1 is activated by binding Rheb. How the absence of amino acids inactivates
Lan Dan et al.
Haematologica, 97(4), 551-559 (2011-12-31)
Inhibitors of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase have recently been validated as therapeutic targets in leukemia, but the mechanism of leukemogenic transformation downstream of this enzyme is unclear. Here, we evaluated whether nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase's effects on aberrant proliferation and survival of myeloid leukemic
Yan Yih Goh et al.
The American journal of pathology, 177(6), 2791-2803 (2010-10-19)
Adipose tissue secretes adipocytokines for energy homeostasis, but recent evidence indicates that some adipocytokines also have a profound local impact on wound healing. Upon skin injury, keratinocytes use various signaling molecules to promote reepithelialization for efficient wound closure. In this
Jean Philippe Arnault et al.
Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research, 18(1), 263-272 (2011-11-19)
The emergence of skin tumors in patients treated with sorafenib or with more recent BRAF inhibitors is an intriguing and potentially serious event. We carried out a clinical, pathologic, and molecular study of skin lesions occurring in patients receiving sorafenib.


Things to consider for preparation, setup and execution of the Duolink® assay protocol

Support information including tips and tricks, frequently asked questions, and basic troubleshooting.


Duolink® kits use in situ PLA®, a proximity ligation assay technology, to accurately and objectively quantify individual proteins, and their interactions and modifications in unmodified cells and tissue.

Related Content

Applications to detect, quantify and visualize protein-protein interactions, post-translational modifications and low expression protein detection using proximity ligation assay

Our team of scientists has experience in all areas of research including Life Science, Material Science, Chemical Synthesis, Chromatography, Analytical and many others.

Contact Technical Service