The anaerobic biodegradability and metabolic pathways of 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (8:2 FTOH) were investigated in anaerobic activated sludge. The biodegradation was well described by a double exponential decay model. 8:2 FTOH was biodegraded to poly- and perfluorinated metabolites with the release of fluoride ion. All polyfluorinated metabolites were intermediate metabolic products and could be further transformed to other metabolites, while perfluorinated metabolites were terminal products. 2H-perfluoro-2-decenoic acid (8:2 FTUA) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were verified as the most abundant poly- and perfluorinated metabolites, respectively. Two shorter-chain perfluorinated metabolites, perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA) and perfluorobutyric acid (PFBA), were first reported in the biodegradation of 8:2 FTOH. However, the total molar recovery of 8:2 FTOH decreased with increasing incubation time, indicating that there might be some unknown metabolites. Thus, the anaerobic biodegradation pathways were proposed as follows: 8:2 FTOH was oxidized to 8:2 FTUA and 2-perfluorooctyl ethanoic acid (8:2 FTCA) via 2-perfluorooctyl acetaldehyde (8:2 FTAL), and then 8:2 FTUA and 8:2 FTCA were further transformed to 1-perfluoroheptyl ethanol (7:2 sFTOH) via 3-perfluoroheptyl propionic acid (7:3 acid) or/and 3-perfluoroheptyl acrylic acid (7:3 Uacid), and eventually 7:2 sFTOH was further biodegraded to PFOA and other perfluorocarboxylates containing less than eight carbons.